菩提道次第廣論卷十四

◎敬禮勝尊具大悲者足。

The most venerable teachers have great compassion; I bow with respect at their feet.

◎第二別學後二波羅蜜多,謂修奢摩他毘缽舍那,如其次第,即是靜慮及慧波羅蜜多之所攝故。

2 In particular, how to train in the last two perfections.
Training in the last two perfections, in particular, is the way to cultivate meditative serenity and insight because serenity and insight are included under the perfections of meditative stabilization and wisdom respectively.

此中分六一 修習止觀之勝利,二 顯示此二攝一切定,三 止觀自性,四 理須雙修,五 次第決定,六 各別學法。

This section has six parts:
1. The benefits of cultivating serenity and insight .
2. Showing that these two include all states of meditative concentration .
3. The nature of serenity and insight.
4. Why it is necessary to cultivate both?
5. How to be certain about their order ?
6. How to train in each ?

今初

(a) The benefits of cultivating serenity and insight

◎大小二乘世出世間一切功德,皆止觀之果。

All of the mundane and supramundane good qualities of the Mahāyāna and Hinayāna are the result of serenity and insight.

如《解深密經》云﹕「慈氏,若諸聲聞,若諸菩薩,若諸如來,所有世間及出世間一切善法,應知皆是此奢摩他毘缽舍那所得之果。」

The 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》 says: Maitreya, you should know that all mundane and Supramundan virtuous qualities, whether of Śrāvakas, bodhisattvas, or tathagatas, are the result of meditative serenity and insight.

若謂止觀,豈非已得修所成者身中功德,今說彼一切功德皆止觀之果,云何應理。

Qualm: Are not serenity and insight good qualities in the mindstream of someone who has reached them through meditation? How is it possible for all good qualities to result from those two?

答,如下所說真實止觀,實是已得修所成之功德,則大小乘一切功德,非盡彼二之果。然以善緣心一境性,諸三摩地,悉皆攝為奢摩他品,及凡揀擇如所有性盡所有性諸妙善慧,悉皆攝為毘缽舍那品。故密意說三乘所有一切功德,皆止觀之果,無相違過。

Reply: As will be explained, actual serenity and insight are good qualities in the mind-stream of someone who has attained them through meditation, so all the good qualities of the Mahāyāna and Hinayāna do not result from them. However, concentrations which at least involve one-pointedness on a virtuous object are classified with serenity; virtuous cognitions that distinguish an ultimate or conventional object are classified with insight. This is what the sūtra means in stating that all of the virtuous qualities of the three vehicles result from serenity and insight, so there is no contradiction.

又於此義,《修信大乘經》 亦
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密意說云﹕「善男子由此異門,說諸菩薩盡其所有大乘信解大乘出生,應知皆是無散亂心,正思法義之所出生。」

With that same purport, the 《Sūtra of Cultivating Faith in the Mahāyāna》 states: Child of good lineage, this list should inform you that faith in the Mahāyāna of the bodhisattvas—and indeed, everything resulting from the Mahāyāna—comes from accurately reflecting on facts and meanings with an undistracted mind.

無散亂心,謂奢摩他品心一境性,正思法義,謂毘缽舍那品妙觀察慧,故大小乘一切功德,皆以觀慧思擇而修及於所緣心一境性,二所成辦,非唯止修或唯觀修一分而成。

An undistracted mind is mental one-pointedness, the serenity aspect, while accurate reflection on facts and meanings refers to discerning wisdom, the insight aspect. Thus, you must achieve all good qualities of the two vehicles through both (1) sustained analysis with discerning wisdom and (2) one-pointed focus on the object of meditation. You do not achieve them through one-sided practice of either analytical meditation or stabilizing meditation.

如《解深密經》云﹕「眾生為相縛,及為粗重縛,要勤修止觀,爾乃得解脫。」

Also, the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》 states:
Once people have cultivated insight
And serenity, they are free
From the bondage of dysfunctional tendencies
And from the bondage of signs.

言粗重者,謂心相續中所有習氣,增長內心顛倒堪能,相者謂於外境前後所生顛倒習氣。《般若波羅蜜多教授論》說,前者為觀所斷,後者為止所斷。

Here, "dysfunctional tendencies" refers to latent propensities in your mind-stream which can produce increasing degrees of misconceptions; "signs" refers to ongoing attachments to errone. ous objects, which foster those propensities. Ratnākaraśānti's 《Instructions for the Perfection of Wisdom》 says that insight eliminates the former, while serenity eliminates the latter.

此上是引有止觀名者所有勝利,餘未說止觀名者,凡說靜慮般若勝利,其義同故,應知皆是止觀勝利。

These are the benefits attributed to "serenity" and "insight," but even when the terms serenity and insight are not used there similar statements about the benefits of meditative stabilization and wisdom. Realize that such statements describe the benefits of serenity and insight.

◎第二顯示此二攝一切定。譬如一樹,雖有無邊枝葉花果,然總攝彼一切扼要厥為根本。如是經說大小乘無邊三摩地,然總攝一切之宗要厥為止觀。

(b) How serenity and insight include all states of meditative concentration
The branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits of a tree are limitless, yet the core point at which they all come together is the root. As in this example, serenity and insight are the sublime core at which gathers all that the Buddha says about the limitless states of meditative concentration in Mahāyāna and Hinayāna.

如《解深密經》云,「如我所說,無量聲聞菩薩如來,有無量種勝三摩地,當知一切皆此所攝。」故欲求定者,不能尋求無邊差別,應求一切等持總聚止觀二品,一切時中恆應修學。

The 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》 states: Know that serenity and insight include all of the many aspects of the states of meditative concentration which I have taught for Śrāvakas, bodhisattvas and tathāgatas. Therefore, since those who are intent on attaining meditative concentration cannot comprehend a limitless number of distinct forms, they should know well and always rely on the techniques for sustaining serenity and insight, the synthesis of all concentrations.

如《修次下編》云﹕「世尊雖說諸菩薩眾無量無數等持差別,然止觀二品,能遍一切勝三摩地,當說止觀雙運轉道。」

Kamalaśīla's 《third Stages of Meditation》 says: Although the Bhagavan therein presented distinct bodhisattva concentrations beyond number or measure, serenity and insight cover all of them. Therefore, we will discuss just that path which unites serenity and insight.

《修次中編》亦云﹕「由此二品能攝一切三摩地故,諸瑜伽師一切時中應修止觀。」

And, as stated in Kamalaśīla's 《second Stages of Meditation》: Since those two include all states of meditative concentration, all yogis should at all times definitely rely upon serenity and insight.
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◎第三止觀自性分二,初奢摩他自性,如《解深密經》云﹕「即於如是善思惟法,獨處空間內正安住,作意思惟,復即於此能思惟心,內心相續作意思惟,如是正行多安住故,起身輕安及心輕安,是名奢摩他。如是菩薩能求奢摩他。」

(c) The nature of serenity and insight
As to the nature of serenity, it is as stated in the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》: While you dwell in solitude and properly direct your attention inward, you attend to just those topics upon which you have carefully reflected. Your attention is mentally engaged by continuously attending inwardly. The state of mind wherein you do this, and stay this way often, and in which both physical and mental pliancy arise, is called serenity.

義謂隨所定解十二分教中,五蘊等義為所緣境,由念正知,令能緣心於所緣境,相續安住而不散亂。故心於境能任運住,若時生起身心輕安所有喜樂,此三摩地即奢摩他。此由內攝其心不散所緣即能生起,不要通達諸法真實。

This means that you take as an object of meditation any appropriate object, such as the five aggregates, having determined that it is a topic in the twelve branches of scripture. With undistracted mindfulness and vigilance, you focus your attention on this object and fix it to the object continuously, so that your mind stabilizes of its own accord on the object of meditation. When you produce the delight and bliss of physical and mental pliancy, then your state of meditative concentration becomes serenity. This comes about through just sustaining your attention inwardly, without distraction from the object of meditation; it is not contingent upon understanding the reality of the thing.

◎二毘缽舍那自性,即前經云﹕「彼由獲得身心輕安為所依故,捨離心相,即於如所善思惟法內,三摩地所行影像觀察勝解,即於如是勝三摩地所行影像所知義中,能正思擇最極思擇,周徧尋思周徧伺察,若忍若樂若覺若見若觀,是名毘缽舍那。如是菩薩能善巧毘缽舍那。」此經宣說毘缽舍那是觀察慧。

As to the nature of insight, the same sūtra says: After you have attained mental pliancy and physical pliancy, you stay therein and eliminate other mental aspects. You then regard inwardly and with discernment the mental image which is the domain of the meditative concentration on the topics upon which you have reflected. With relation to the images that are the domain of such concentration, any differentiation of the meaning of these topics, or full differentiation, thorough examination, thorough analysis, forbearance, wish, differentiation of particulars, view, or thought is called "insight." Thus is a bodhisattva skilled in insight.

最極明顯無可抵賴,傳說支那堪布見已謗云﹕「此是經否不得而知,」用足毀踏。

It is said that the Chinese master Ha-shang (Hva-shang), having seen this sūtra's very clear and undeniable explanation that insight is discerning wisdom, exclaimed, "I don't know how this can be a sūtra!" and kicked it.

因彼妄計一切分別皆執實相,要棄觀慧全不作意,乃為修習甚深法義,不順此經故用足毀,現見多有隨此派者。

He did this because the sūtra's statement did not agree with his claim that since all conceptualization of any sort involves an apprehension of signs, you should dispense with discerning wisdom and meditate on the profound meaning by not bringing anything to mind. This approach has a great number of adherents.

聖無著說,「正思擇者謂思擇盡所有性,最極思擇謂思擇如所有性,以有分別慧作意取諸相時名周徧尋思,真實觀時
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名周徧伺察。」尋謂粗思,伺謂細察,取諸相者非執諦實,是明了境相,由是思擇如所有性盡所有性,皆有周徧尋思及周徧伺察。

In that sūtra passage, "differentiation" means distinguishing the diversity of conventional phenomena; "full differentiation" means distinguishing their real [ultimate] nature. The noble Asanga explains that "thorough examination" is when conceptual attention possessed of wisdom apprehends a sign; "thorough analysis" means proper examination. "Examination" means rough examination; "analysis" means detailed analysis. The apprehension of a sign does not here refer to a conception of true existence, but rather to distinguishing the exact particulars of an object. Accordingly, there is both examination and analysis of both the real nature and the diversity of phenomena.

◎《寶雲經》說義同深密,如云﹕「奢摩他者謂心一境性,毘缽舍那者謂正觀察。」

In accord with the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》, the 《Cloud of Jewels Sūtra》 also clearly states: Serenity is one-pointed attention; insight is proper discernment.

慈尊於《莊嚴經論》云﹕「應知諸法名,總集為止道,應知妙觀道,思擇諸法義。」

Also, the venerable Maitreya says in the 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》:
Know as the path of serenity
Abbreviating the name of a phenomenon;
Understand the path of insight
To be analysis of its meanings.

又云﹕「正住為所依,心安住於心,及善思擇法,應知是止觀。」

And,
Based on a genuine stability,
Through directing your attention to your mind
And through differentiating phenomena,
There is meditative serenity and insight.

依定住心說名為止,善擇法慧說名為觀。

This states that stabilization of your mind on the basis of genuine concentration is serenity and the wisdom that differentiates phenomena is insight.

前經密意作是解已,令更不能別解經義,

Since this comments to the same effect on what those sūtras say, it is inappropriate to construe those sūtra passages in some other sense.

《菩薩地》云﹕「於離言說唯事唯義所緣境中繫心令住,離諸戲論,離心擾亂想作意故,於諸所緣而作勝解,於諸定相令心內住安住等住,廣說乃至一趣等持,是名奢摩他。

Also, Asanga's 《Bodhisattva Levels》 says:
With your mind definitely directed at an object of meditation which is simply some inexpressible thing or its meaning, an attentive perception free from all elaboration and free from all mental distraction takes up any object of meditation. Then, "meditative serenity" exists from the point at which internal concentration stabilizes and focuses your attention on a sign, and for as long as it maintains a single, extended flow and maintains concentration.

云何毘缽舍那? 由奢摩他熏修作意,即於如先所思惟法思惟其相,如理簡擇,最極簡擇,極簡擇法,廣說乃至覺明慧行,是名毘缽舍那。」

What is insight? You bring to mind the signs of those very phenomena upon which you have reflected, using the same attention with which you cultivated serenity. "Insight" is anything from the point of either differentiation, full differentiation, or full differentiation of phenomena, and for as long as skill and wisdom are operating extensively.

此與前說極相隨順,此文雙解經意及慈尊意,故於前文所明止觀應生定解。

It gives commentary to the same effect as the sūtra and the text of the Venerable One, so it confirms the certainty of the foregoing identification of serenity and insight.

《修次中編》亦云﹕「外境散亂,既止息已,於內所緣恆常相續任運而轉,安住歡喜輕安之心,是名奢摩他。即由安住奢摩他時,思擇真實,是名毘缽舍那。」

Also, the 《second Stages of Meditation》 says:
After you have quelled the distraction of external objects, you rest in a delighted and pliant mind which naturally and continuously engages an internal object of meditation. This is called meditative serenity. While you remain in serenity, any analysis of that very object is called insight.

《般若波羅蜜多教授論》云﹕「盡所有性如所有性無分別影像者,是止所緣。盡所有性如所有性有分別影像者,是觀所緣。」

Also, Ratnākaraśānti's 《Instructions for the Perfection of Wisdom》 says:
With regard to that, serenity's object of meditation is a non-discursive image of something which is either a case of the diversity of phenomena or which represents the real nature. Insight's object of meditation is a discursive image of something which is a case of the diversity of phenomena or which represents the real nature.

此說於如所有性盡所有性
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不分別住名奢摩他,思擇二境名毘缽舍那。

This states that meditative serenity is non-discursive stabilization on something among either the diversity or the real nature of phenomena, and that insight is analysis of either of those two objects.

《解深密經》云﹕「世尊,幾是奢摩他所緣,告曰一種,謂無分別影像。幾是毘缽舍那所緣,告曰一種,謂有分別影像。幾是俱所緣,告曰有二,謂事邊際所作成辦。」

This is also the intended meaning of a passage in the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》:
"O Bhagavan, how many objects does serenity have?"
The Buddha replied, "One, namely, a non-discursive image."
"How many objects does insight have?"
"Just one, a discursive image."
"How many objects of both are there?"
"Two, namely, the limits of existence and achievement of your purpose."

集論於事邊際,開說如所有性及盡所有性之二。寂靜論師如前所說止觀皆能俱緣如所有性盡所有性。

Asanga's 《Compendium of Knowledge》states that "the limits of existence" refers to both the diversity and real nature of phenomena, so serenity and insight each take both ultimates and conventionalities as objects of meditation, just as Ratnākaraśānti explained above.

是故止觀非就所緣境相而分,既有通達空性之止,亦有不達空性之觀。若能止心於外境轉,住內所緣即說名止,增上觀照即名勝觀。

Thus, meditative serenity and insight are not differentiated in terms of their respective objects of meditation, for there is meditative serenity that knows emptiness and there is insight which does not know emptiness. Also, meditative serenity (zhignas) is your mind quieting (zhi) movement toward external objects, and then abiding (gnas) on an internal object of meditation; insight (lhag mthong) is superior (lhagpa), i.e., special, seeing (mthong).

◎有說內心無分別住,無明了相說名為止,有明了力說名為觀,此不應理。以與佛經及慈尊無著之論,並修次第等諸廣決擇止觀相者,說於所緣心一境性勝三摩地名奢摩他,於所知義正揀擇慧名毘缽舍那皆相違故。

Some claim that a mind resting in a non-discursive state without vivid intensity is serenity, while such a mind with vivid intensity is insight. This is not correct because it contradicts the definitions of serenity and insight that are established at length in sources such as the words of the Conqueror, the treatises of the Regent, the texts of Asanga, and Kamalaśīla's 《Stages of Meditation》. These texts say that meditative serenity is attention concentrated one-pointedly on an object of meditation, while insight is wisdom that properly distinguishes the meaning of an object of knowledge.

又無分別心有無明了之力者,是因三摩地有無沉沒之差別,以此為止觀之差別,極不應理,

In particular, the presence or absence of vivid intensity of mind in a non-conceptual consciousness indicates whether the concentration is lax; it is utterly incorrect to claim that it indicates the difference between serenity and insight.

以一切奢摩他定皆須離沉,凡離沉沒三摩地中,心皆定有明淨分故。

This is because in all concentrations of meditative serenity you definitely must clear away laxity, and because all concentrations free from laxity are invariably limpid states of mind.

故緣如所有性之定慧,是就內心證與未證二無我性隨一而定,非就其心住與不住,明了安樂無分別相,而為判別,以心未趣向無我真實者,亦有無量明樂無分別三摩地故。

Thus, identify concentration and wisdom that focus on the real nature according to whether your mind knows as its object either of the two selflessnesses. Do not identify them according to whether your mind rests in a non-discursive, clear, and blissful state, because there are countless states of concentration which are blissful, clear, and non-discursive, yet which do not orient your mind toward the reality of objects, their lack of self.

雖未獲得實性見解,但若執心令無分別,現可生起。

Even without finding the view that knows the way things are, any totally non-discursive mind can be adequate to induce bliss and clarity.

故未解空性,生無分別定無少相違,

Even without understanding emptiness by establishing it in perception, nothing at all prevents you from developing non-discursive concentration.

若能由此久攝其心,以攝心力風生堪能,身心法爾能生喜樂,故生喜樂
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亦不相違。

If you keep your mind that way for a long time, you cause the wind-energies to become serviceable. Once this occurs, nothing precludes the arising of bliss, as it is the nature of such serviceability to create mental and physical delight and bliss.

喜樂生已,即由喜樂受相明了力令心明了,故說一切明了安樂無分別定,皆證真性全無確證。

Once bliss has arisen, then there will be mental clarity by virtue of the quality of clarity in the feelings of delight and bliss. For this reason, there is not a single authentic source to prove that all blissful, clear, non-discursive concentrations know reality.

諸證空性妙三摩地,雖有明樂無所分別,諸未趣向空性之定,亦有極多明了安樂及無分別,故應善辨二定差別。

Therefore, since bliss, clarity, and non-discursiveness are present in concentrations that know emptiness, yet very often occur in concentrations that are not directed toward emptiness, you have to differentiate these two.

◎第四理須雙修。

(d) Why it is necessary to cultivate both

修止觀一種何非完足必雙修耶,

Why is it insufficient to cultivate either serenity or insight alone? Why is it necessary to cultivate both?

答,譬如夜間,為觀壁畫而然燈燭,若燈明亮無風擾動,乃能明見諸像,若燈不明,或燈雖明而有風動,是則不能明見諸色。

I will explain. If you light an oil-lamp for the purpose of viewing a picture in the middle of the night, you will see the depictions very clearly if the lamp is both very bright and undisturbed by wind. If the lamp is not bright, or is bright but flickering in the wind, then you will not see the images clearly.

如是為觀甚深義故,亦須定解真義無倒妙慧,及心於所緣,如欲安住而無擾動,乃能明見真實。

Likewise, when looking for the meaning, you will clearly see reality if you have both th that unerringly discerns the meaning of reality and an unmoving attention that stays as you wish on the object of meditation.

若僅具有心不散亂無分別定,然無通達實性妙慧,是離能見實性之眼,於三摩地任何薰修,然終不能證真實性。

However, if you do not have wisdom that knows how things are - even if you have a non-discursive concentration in which your mind is stable and does not scatter to other objects—then you lack the eyes which see reality. Hence, it will be impossible to know how things are no matter how much you develop your concentration.

若雖有見能悟無我真實性義,然無正定,令心專一堅固安住,則無自在,為分別風之所動搖,亦定不能明見實義,是故雙須止觀二品。

And even with a perspective that understands reality—selflessness—if you lack a firm concentration that stays one-pointedly on its object, then it will be impossible to clearly see the meaning of the way things are because you will be disturbed by the winds of uncontrollably fluctuating discursive thought. This is why you need both serenity and insight.

如《修次中編》云﹕「唯觀離止如風中燭,瑜伽師心於境散亂不能堅住,不生明了智慧光明,故當雙修。」

Kamalaśīla's second 《Stages of Meditation》 says: With bare insight that lacks serenity, the yogi's mind is distracted by objects; like an oil-lamp in the wind, it will not be stable. For this reason, what sublime wisdom sees will not be very clear. As this is so, rely equally on both.

《大般涅槃經》云﹕「聲聞不見如來種性,以定力強故,慧力劣故。菩薩雖見而不明顯,慧力強故,定力劣故。唯有如來遍見一切,止觀等故。

Therefore, the 《Great Final Nirvana Sūtra》says: Śrāvakas do not see the lineage of the tathâgatas because their concentration is greater than their wisdom; bodhisattvas see it, but unclearly, because their wisdom is greater than their concentration. The tathâgatas see everything because they have serenity and insight in equal measure.

由止力故如無風燭,諸分別風不動心故,由觀力故,永斷一切諸惡見綱,不為他破。」

With the power of serenity, your mind—like a lamp placed where there is no wind—will be unmoved by the winds of discursive thought. With insight, others cannot divert you since you have abandoned the infinite entanglements of bad views.

《月燈經》云﹕「由止力無動,由觀故如山。心無散亂,安住所緣,是
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修止迹。證無我義,斷我見等一切惡見,敵不能動猶如山王,是修觀迹。故於此二應知差別。」

《 Lamp Sūtra 》says:
The power of meditative serenity makes your mind steady; insight makes it like a mountain. So, the mark of meditative serenity is that your attention stays right where it is placed without distraction from the object of meditation. The mark of insight is that you know the reality of selflessness and eliminate bad views such as the view of self; your mind is like a mountain in that it cannot be shaken by opponents. Therefore, you should distinguish these two marks.

◎又於未成奢摩他前,雖以觀慧觀無我義,心極動搖如風中燭,無我影像且不明顯,若成止後而善觀察,則已滅除極動過失,方能明了無我影像。

Before you achieve meditative serenity, you may use discerning wisdom to analyze the meaning of selflessness, but your mind is extremely unsteady, like a lamp in the wind, so your concept of selflessness is unclear. On the other hand, if you analyze when you have achieved serenity, you avoid the fault of extreme unsteadiness, so your concept of selflessness will be clear.

故毘缽舍那不散動心,是從無分別奢摩他生,通達實義非從止生。

Thus, the mental state of insight has a quality of steadiness which derives from non-discursive meditative serenity and a quality of knowing how things exist which does not derive from meditative serenity.

譬如燈能照色,是從前念燈火而生,非從遮風帳幔等起,燈固不動,則從幔生。

For example, a lamp's ability to illumine forms derives from the wick and the preceding moments of flame; it does not derive from such things as the screen that protects it from the wind. However, the stability of the steady flame of the lamp does derive from this screen.

若心無掉沉不平等相,住奢摩他定,次以慧觀能證真實。

Thus, if you engage in analysis with a wisdom possessed of the meditative equipoise of serenity—a state undisturbed by laxity or excitement—then you will understand the meaning of reality.

故正攝法經密意說云﹕「由心住定,乃能如實了知真實。」

With this in mind, the 《Compendium of the Teachings Sūtra》 states: When your mind is in meditative equipoise, you will understand reality just as it is.

《修次初編》云﹕「心動如水無止為依,不能安住非等引心,不能如實了知真義,故世尊說由心住定,乃能如實了知真實。」

Kamalaśīla's 《first Stages of Meditation》 says:
Because your mind moves like a river, it does not rest without the foundation of meditative serenity, a mind that is not in meditative equipoise cannot understand reality just as it is. Also, the Bhagavan says, "With meditative equipoise, you know reality just as it is."

◎又成就奢摩他已,非僅能遮,正觀無我性慧動搖過失,即修無常業果,生死過患慈悲菩提心等,凡此一切修觀慧時,於所緣境散亂過失,亦皆能遣。

When you achieve serenity, you not only stop the fault of movement in the wisdom consciousness that properly analyzes selflessness, you also stop the fault of distraction from the object of meditation whenever you use discerning wisdom to conduct analytical meditation on topics such as impermanence, karma and its effects, the faults of cyclic existence, love, compassion, or the practice of the spirit of enlightenment.

各於所緣無散亂故,所修眾善皆有大力,未得止前多是散心,故所修善皆悉微劣。

No matter what your object of meditation, you engage it without distraction, so that any virtue you cultivate is much more powerful. On the other hand, before you reach serenity, you weaken all of your virtuous deeds by frequent distraction to other objects.

如《入行論》云,「諸人心散亂,住煩惱齒中。」

As Santideva's 《Engaging in the Bodhisattva Deeds》 says:
The person whose mind is distracted Lives between the fangs of the afflictions.

又云﹕「雖經長時修,念誦苦行等,心散亂所作,佛說無義利。」

And: The One Who Knows Reality has said that
Prayers, austerities, and such—
Even if practiced for a long time—
Are pointless if done with a distracted mind.

◎如是成就無分別定,心於所緣不餘散者,義為令心於善所緣,成就堪能如欲而住,此
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復繫心於一所緣即能安住,欲令起時須於無邊善所緣境,如欲而轉,如通利溝引諸流水。

Thus, the aim of attaining a concentration in which your mind is non-discursively stabilized on a single object without distraction is to have mental serviceability—the ability to willfully direct your attention to virtuous objects of meditation. If you fix your attention on a single object of meditation, you can keep it there, but it you release it, it will proceed as you wish to limitless virtuous objects, just like water drawn into smoothly flowing irrigation ditches.

故成止後,更須修集緣如所有及盡所有妙慧,施心戒心忍辱精進淨信及厭離等,無邊眾善,滅無邊失。

Therefore, after you have achieved meditative serenity, you must sustain in meditation objects and attitudes that stop limitless faults and bring together limitless virtues, such as wisdom consciousnesses focusing on the real nature and the diversity of phenomena, generosity, the attitude of restraint, patience, joyous perseverance, faith, and disenchantment with cyclic existence.

若唯安住一所緣境者,是未了知修止之義,不能增長廣大善行。

Realize that continuously stabilizing your mind by fixing it on a single object of meditation yields no great advantages in the practice of virtue, for those who do this fail to appreciate the purpose of achieving serenity.

如是若捨行品觀品妙觀察慧,唯修三摩地心一境性,其利極小。

Thus, if you reject analytical meditation with discerning wisdom both in the deeds section of the perfections and in the view section of the perfections, your cultivation of one-pointed concentration will be very weak.

又於無我義,若無觀慧引生恆常猛利定解,緣如所有性毘缽舍那,唯久修習正奢摩他,僅能壓伏現行煩惱,終不能斷煩惱種子,故非唯修止,亦定應修觀。

The technique for producing forceful and longlasting certainty about the meaning of selflessness is sustained analysis with discerning wisdom. Without such insight into the real nature, no matter how long you cultivate serenity, you can only suppress manifest afflictions; you cannot eradicate their seeds. Therefore, do not cultivate only serenity; you need to cultivate insight as well

如《修次中編》云﹕「諸瑜伽師若唯修止,唯能暫伏煩惱現行,不能斷障,以未發生智慧光明,則定不能壞隨眠故。」

because, as Kamalaśīla's 《second Stages of Meditation》 says: Cultivating just serenity alone does not get rid of a practitioner's obscurations; it only suppresses the affections for a while. Unless you have the light of wisdom, you do not destroy dormant tendencies.

《解深密經》云﹕「由靜慮故,降伏煩惱,由般若故,斷諸隨眠。」

For this reason the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》 says: Meditative stabilization suppresses afflictions; wisdom destroys dormant tendencies.

《三摩地王經》云﹕「雖善修正定,不能破我想,後為煩惱亂,如外道修定。若觀法無我,觀已善修習,是證涅槃因,非餘能寂滅。」

Also, the 《King of Concentrations Sūtra》 says:
Although worldly persons cultivate concentration
They do not destroy the notion of self.
Their afflictions return and disturb them,
As they did Udraka, who cultivated concentration in this way.
If you analytically discern the lack of self in phenomena
And if you cultivate that analysis in meditation,
This will cause the result, attainment of nirvana;
There is no peace through any other means.

《菩薩藏經》亦云﹕「若未聞此菩薩法門,亦未聽聞聖調伏法,唯三摩地而得喜足,為慢轉墮增上慢,不能解脫生老病死愁嘆苦憂及諸衰惱,不能解脫六道輪回,不能解脫諸大苦蘊。」

Also, the 《Scriptural Collection of the Bodhisattvas》 says:
Those who are unlearned in the contents of the Scriptural Collection of the Bodhisattvas, unlearned in the discipline of the noble teaching, and who derive a sense of sufficiency from mere concentration fall by virtue of their pride into an inflated sense of themselves. They will not escape from birth, aging, sickness, death, sorrow, lamentation, suffering, unhappiness, or perturbation; they will not escape from the six realms of cyclic existence; they will not escape from the aggregation of suffering.

如來於此密意說云﹕「從他聽聞解脫老死,故欲斷諸障發淨智者,應依奢摩他而修妙慧。」

With that in mind, the Tathâgata said, "Learning from others what is appropriate, you will escape aging and death." As this is so, those who seek completely pure sublime wisdom from which every obscuration has been eliminated should cultivate wisdom while they remain in serenity.

《寶積經》云﹕「住戒能得定,得定能修慧,由慧得淨智,智淨戒圓滿。」

On this point, the 《Ratna-kuta Collection》 says:
Keeping ethical discipline, you will attain concentration;
Attaining concentration, you cultivate wisdom;
With wisdom you attain pure, sublime wisdom;
As your sublime wisdom is pure, your ethical discipline is perfect.

《修信大乘經》云,「善男子,若諸菩薩不住於慧,我不說
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彼能信大乘,能生大乘。」

And the 《Sūtra of Cultivating Faith in the Mahāyāna》 says:
Child of good lineage, if you did not have wisdom, I would not say that you had faith in the Mahāyāna of bodhisattvas, nor would I say you knew the real nature in the Mahāyāna.

◎第五次第決定。

(e) How to be certain about their order

如《入行論》云﹕「當知具止觀,能摧諸煩惱,故應先求止。」

Santideva's Engaging in the Bodhisattva Deeds says:
Insight possessed of serenity
Destroys the afflictions. Knowing this,
Seek serenity at the outset.

謂先修止,次依止故,乃修妙觀。

According to this statement, you first achieve meditative serenity and then cultivate insight on that basis.

若作是念,修次初編云﹕「此二所緣無定,」此說止緣無有決定。

Qualm: Kamalaśīla's 《first Stages of Meditation》 says, "Its object of meditation is indeterminate," meaning that the object of meditation of meditative serenity is indeterminate.

前文亦說,止所緣中俱有法及法性,故先了解無我深義,緣彼而修,則心無散亂之止及緣空性之觀同時俱起,何必先求奢摩他已,次乃修觀耶。

As explained above, the object of meditation of serenity may be either reality itself or a conventional phenomenon possessed of reality. If you first understand the meaning of selflessness, and then meditate while focusing on this, it should be enough to simultaneously produce both the serenity of an undistracted mind and insight focused on emptiness. Why, then, is it said that you first seek serenity and cultivate insight?

答,此說觀前先修止者,非說引生正見通達無我須先修止。雖無止者,亦能生正見故。又此正見內生強力之感覺,亦不須以止為先,以無止者,僅以觀慧數數思擇,此亦能生強力感覺,無所違故。

Reply: The way in which serenity precedes insight is as follows. You do not need to have serenity already in order to develop an understanding of the view that knows that there is no self, for we see that even those who lack serenity develop this view. Nor do you need to have serenity already in order to experience mental transformation in regard to the view, for nothing precludes mental transformation being brought on by the practice of repeated analysis with discerning wisdom, even in the absence of serenity.

若相違者,則修無常生死過患菩提心等,引生強力之感覺,皆須依止。太為過失,理相等故。

If you claim that the absence of serenity precludes mental transformation in regard to the view, then the very same reasoning forces you to the extremely absurd conclusion that serenity is required even to experience mental transformation when meditating on impermanence, the faults of cyclic existence, or the spirit of enlightenment.

◎若爾,觀前修止為何耶。如解深密經說,若以觀慧而修思擇,最極思擇,乃至未起身心輕安,爾時但是毘缽舍那相應作意,生輕安已乃名妙觀。

So, why is serenity required for insight? According to the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》, as long as the practice of discrimination and special discrimination with discerning wisdom cannot generate physical and mental pliancy, it constitutes a type of attention which approximates insight; when it generates pliancy, then it is insight.

故先未得止者,僅以觀慧而修思擇,終不能發身心輕安所有喜樂。

Thus, if you have not attained serenity, then no matter how much analytical meditation you do with discerning wisdom, in the end you will not be able generate the delight and bliss of physical and mental pliancy.

若得止已,後以觀慧思擇而修,輕安乃生,故觀須止因,下當廣說。

Once you have attained meditative serenity, then even the analytical meditation of discerning wisdom will culminate in pliancy. Hence, insight requires meditative serenity as a cause. This will be explained below.

故若非僅由住一境,即以觀慧思擇之力,若能引發輕安之時,乃是成辦毘缽舍那。

Discerning wisdom becomes insight when, without focusing on a single object, it can generate pliancy through the power of analysis.

雖緣空性為境,若但由其住一所緣,引生輕安,仍未能出修止之法,非此即得毘缽舍那。

So generating pliancy by setting your attention on a single object of meditation—even if the object is emptiness—is nothing more than a way to achieve serenity; that alone does not count as attaining insight.


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未得止者,先求了解無我之義,次緣比義數數思擇,由此思擇不能得止。

Why? If you thus first seek an understanding of self lessness, analyzing its meaning again and again, it will be impossible to achieve serenity on the basis of this analysis since you have not previously achieved serenity.

若不思擇安住而修,由此為依雖可得止,然除修止之外,而無修觀之法,更須修觀。

If you do stabilizing meditation without analysis, you will achieve serenity on that basis. However as there is no way to sustain insight except by sustaining serenity you have to seek insight later.

故仍未出先修止已次修勝觀決定次第。若不以思擇引發輕安,建立為觀者,則先修止次乃修觀,全無正理。

Hence, this does not fall outside pattern in which, having previously sought serenity, you cultivate insight based on it. Accordingly, the way insight develops is that discerning analytical meditation generates pliancy. If this were not so, there would not be the slightest good reason to seek serenity first and then cultivate insight based on it.

若不如是次第而修,亦不應理。

Failing to do these meditations in this order is quite inappropriate

《解深密經》說,要依奢摩他乃修毘缽舍那。

because the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》 states in a passage cited above that you cultivate insight on the basis of having attained serenity.

又「依前而生後」說六度中靜慮與般若之次第及依增上定學,而生增上慧學之次第,皆先修止而後修觀。

Also, the order of meditative stabilization and wisdom among the six perfections— of which it is said that "the latter develop based on the former"— as well as the sequence in which training in higher wisdom is based on training in higher concentration are in agreement with the sequence in which, having previously cultivated serenity, you later cultivate insight.

又如前引《菩薩地》文,《聲聞地》亦說,當依奢摩他而修毘缽舍那。

Asanga's 《Bodhisattva Levels》 (cited earlier) and his 《Śrāvaka Levels》 indicate that insight is cultivated on the basis of meditative serenity.

《中觀心論》及《入行論》《修次三編》,智稱論師寂靜論師等,皆說先修奢摩他已,後修勝觀。

Also, Bhavaviveka's 《Heart of the Middle Way》 , Santideva's 《Engaging in the Bodhisattva Deeds》, Kamalaśīla's 《three Stages of Meditation》, Jnānakirti, and Ratnākaraśānti all state that you cultivate insight after previously seeking serenity.

故印度少數論師,有說無須別求正奢摩他,最初即以觀慧思擇,亦能引生毘缽舍那者,違諸大轍所造論典,非諸智者可憑信處。

Some Indian masters claim that, without seeking serenity separately, you generate insight from the outset through analysis by discerning wisdom. Since this view contradicts the texts of the great trailblazers, the wise deem it to be untrustworthy.

◎又此止觀次第,是就新生之時應如是修,若先已生,則無決定次第,亦可先修毘缽舍那,次修奢摩他。

This is the sequence in which you newly develop serenity and insight for the first time; later the sequence is indefinite, as you may cultivate serenity after previously cultivating insight.

何故《集論》說有先得勝觀而未得止,彼應依觀而勤修止耶?

Qualm: Asanga's Compendium of Knowledge states, "Some attain insight, but do not attain serenity; they strive for serenity on the basis of insight." How do you account for this?

答,此非說未得第一靜慮未到定所攝之止,是說未得第一靜慮三摩地以上之止。

Reply: This means that they have not attained the serenity of the actual first meditative stabilization, or beyond; it does not preclude their having attained the serenity which is included in the access to the first meditative stabilization.

此復是說證四諦已,次依此觀,而修第一靜慮以上之止。

Also, once you have perceptual knowledge of the four truths, you can establish on that basis the serenity of the actual first meditative stabilization and the higher meditative stabilizations.

《本地分》云﹕「又已如實善知從苦至道,然未能得初靜慮等,於此無間住心,更不擇法,是依增上慧而修增上心。」

For Asanga's Levels of Yogic Deeds says: Moreover, you can accurately know the reality of the truths from suffering to path, without having attained the first meditative stabilization, etc. As soon as this knowledge of the truths occurs, you stabilize your mind and do not analyze phenomena. Based on this higher wisdom, you pursue the practice of higher states of consciousness.

又為便於立言說故,於九住心通
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說為止,思擇等四通說名觀。然真實止觀如下所說,要生輕安乃可安立。

In general, for the sake of comprehensive terminology, the nine mental states are called meditative serenity and the fourfold analysis is called insight. However, you must apply the terms "actual serenity" and "actual insight"—as will be explained—after the generation of pliancy.

第六各別學法分三,一 學奢摩他法。二 學毘缽舍那法。三 學雙運法。

f. How to train in each
(i) How to train in meditative serenity
(ii) How to train in insight.
(iii) How to unite them.

初又分三,一 修止資糧,二 依止資糧修奢摩他,三 修已成就奢摩他量。

How to train in meditative serenity has three parts:
1 Relying on the preconditions for meditative serenity.
2 How to cultivate serenity on that basis.
3 The measure of successful cultivation of serenity.

今初

Relying on the preconditions for meditative serenity:

◎諸瑜伽師先集資糧,即是速易成止之因。其中有六,

At the outset, the yogi should rely on the preconditions for serenity, which make it possible to achieve serenity quickly and comfortably. There are six:

一住隨順處,住具五德之處,一 易於獲得,謂無大劬勞得衣食等。二 處所賢善,謂無猛獸等凶惡眾生,及無怨等之所居住。三 地土賢善,謂非引生疾病之地。四 伴友賢善,謂具良友戒見相同。五 具善妙相,謂日無多人夜靜聲寂。

(1) Dwelling in an appropriate area. The area should have five attributes:
(a) easy access, so that necessities such as food and clothing may be readily obtained;
(b) being a good place to live, where there are no wild beasts such as predators, no enemies, etc.
(c) being on a good piece of ground, in that it does not breed sickness;
(d) offering good companionship insofar as your companions are ethically disciplined and likeminded; and
(e) being well-situated inasmuch as there are not many people about in the day and little noise at night.

如《莊嚴經論》云﹕「具慧修行處,易得賢善處,善地及善友,瑜伽安樂具。」

Maitreya's 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》 states:
「The intelligent practice in a place
Which is accessible, is a good place to live,
Offers good ground and good Companions,
And has the requisites for comfortable yogic practice.」

二少欲,不貪眾多上妙衣服等事。

(2) Having little desire. You do not strongly crave more or better robes, etc.

三知足,雖得微少粗弊衣等常能知足。

(3) Being content. You are always content to have even the poorest robes, etc.

四斷諸雜務,皆當斷除行貿易等諸惡事業,或太親近在家出家,或行醫藥算星相等。

(4) Completely giving up many activities. You give up base activities such as buying and selling; you also abandon excessive socializing with householders and renunciates, as well as pursuits such as medicine and astrology.

五清淨尸羅,於別解脫及菩薩律,皆不應犯性罪遮罪破壞學處,設放逸犯,速生追悔如法悔除。

(5) Pure ethical discipline. You do not violate precepts, doing deeds that are wrong by naturę or wrong by prohibition, either in the case of vows of individual liberation or in the case of bodhisattva vows. If you do violate them through carelessness, you restore them promptly with regret in accordance with the teaching.

六斷除貪欲等諸惡尋思,於貪欲等當修殺縛等現法過患及墮惡趣等當來過患,又生死中愛非愛事,皆是無常可破壞法,此定不久與我分離,何為於彼而起貪等。

(6) Completely getting rid of thoughts of desire, etc.
In the case of desires, contemplate their disadvantages in this lifetime, such as their leading to being killed or imprisoned, as well their disadvantages for the future, such as their leading to rebirth in miserable realms. Alternatively, eliminate all thoughts of desire and such by meditating with the thought that "Everything in cyclic existence, pleasant or unpleasant, is ephemeral and impermanent. Since it is certain that I will shortly be separated from all of these things, why should I crave them?"

由是修習,能斷貪等諸惡尋思,此如《修次中編》之意,於聲聞地應當廣知。

I have explained these points according to the purport of Kamalaśīla's 《second Stages of Meditation》; you should learn more about them from Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》.

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◎如是六法能攝正定,未生新生,生已不退,安住增長因緣宗要。

These six topics cover the key causes and conditions for newly developing good concentration, for maintaining an existing concentration without deterioration, and for heightening your concentration.

尤以清淨尸羅,觀欲過患,住相順處為其主要。

In particular, the most important ones are good ethical discipline, seeing desires as disadvantageous, and dwelling in an appropriate area.

善知識敦巴云﹕「我等唯覺是教授過,專求教授,然定不生,是未安住資糧所致。」

Geshe Drom-dòn-ba said: We think that the fault lies only in our personal instructions. As we then seek only personal instructions, we are unable to attain concentration. This is the result of not abiding under its conditions.

言資糧者,即前六法。又前四度,即是第五靜慮資糧。

The term "conditions" refers to the six explained above. Moreover, the first four perfections serve as preconditions for the fifth, meditative stabilization.

《修次初編》云﹕「若能不著利等諸欲,善住尸羅,性忍眾苦,勤發精進,速能引發正奢摩他。故《解深密經》等,亦說施等為後後因。」

Kamalaśīla's 《first Stages of Meditation》 states: You quickly accomplish serenity when you disregard the desire for possessions and such, keep good ethical discipline, have a disposition to readily tolerate suffering, and joyously persevere. That being the case, sources such as the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》 teach that generosity and the other perfections are causes of the successively higher perfections.

《道炬論》云﹕「失壞止支分,雖勵力修習,縱經多千年,不能成正定。」

Atisha's 《Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment》 states:
When you lack the elements of serenity,
Even if you meditate assiduously,
You will not achieve concentration
Even in thousands of years.

故真欲修止觀定者,應勵力集聲聞地中正奢摩他十三資糧,極為主要。

Therefore, it is very important for those who sincerely wish to achieve the concentrations of serenity and insight to work on the elements or preconditions for serenity, such as the thirteen which are set forth in Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》.

第二依止資糧修奢摩他分二,一 加行,二 正行。  

2 How to cultivate serenity on that basis. This has two parts:
2.1 Preparation
2.2 Actual practice.

今初

2.1 Preparation

◎修如前說加行六法,尤應久修大菩提心。又應淨修共中下士所緣自體,為菩提心之支分。

Practice the six preparatory teachings explained above and especially cultivate the spirit of enlightenment for a long time; also, in support of that you should do the meditative practices that are shared with persons of small and medium capacities.

第二正行分二,一 身何威儀而修,二 正釋修習之次第。  

2.2 Actual practice. This has two parts:
2.2.1 meditative posture and
2.2.2 the meditative process itself.

今初

2.2.1 Meditative posture.

◎如《修次中編》下編所說,於安樂具身具八法,

Kamalaśīla's 《second and third Stages of Meditation》s say that you should take up an eight-point posture on a very soft and comfortable seat:

足者,謂全跏趺,如毘盧遮那佛坐,或半跏趺。

(1) Cross your legs in the manner of the venerable Vairocana, using either the full-lotus posture or the half-lotus posture as appropriate.

眼者,謂不應太開亦非太閉,垂注鼻端。

(2) Your eyes should be neither wide open nor too far closed, and they should be fixed on the tip of your nose.

身者,謂非過後仰莫太前屈,端身內念。

(3) Sit with your awareness directed inward, keeping your body straight without leaning too far back or being bent too far forward.

肩者,謂平齊而住。

(4) Keep your shoulders straight and even.

頭者,莫揚莫低莫歪一方,自鼻至臍正直而住。

(5) Do not raise or lower your head nor turn it to one side; set it so that your nose and navel are aligned.

齒與唇者,隨自然住。

(6) Set your teeth and lips in their usual, natural positions.

舌者,令抵上齒。

(7) Draw your tongue up close to your upper teeth.

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息者,內外出入莫令有聲,粗猛急滑,必使出入無所知覺,全無功用徐徐而轉。

(8) Your inhalation and exhalation should not be noisy, forced, or uneven; let it flow effortlessly, ever so gently, without any sense that you are moving it here or there.

《聲聞地》說於佛所許,或床或座或草敷上,結跏趺坐,有五因緣,

Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 gives five reasons for sitting as the Buddha taught, cross-legged on a seat, stool, or grass mat:

一善斂其身速發輕安,由此威儀順生輕安故。

(1) This posture in which the body is pulled together well is conducive to the arising of pliancy, so you will develop pliancy very quickly.

二由此宴坐能經久時,以此威儀不極令身疾疲倦故。

(2) Sitting in this way makes it possible to maintain the posture for a long time; the posture does not lead to physical exhaustion.

三由此威儀不共外道,及異論故。

(3) This posture is not common to non-Buddhists and our opponents.

四由此威儀令他見已極信敬故。

(4) When others see you sitting in this posture, they are inspired.

五由此威儀佛佛弟子,共所開許共依止故。

(5) The Buddha and his disciples used this posture and bestowed it upon us.

正觀如是五因緣故,結跏趺坐。端正身者為令不生昏沉睡眠,

Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》says that, in light of these reasons, you should sit cross-legged. It also says that you keep your body straight so that lethargy and sleepiness will not occur.

先應令身具八威儀,尤於調息如說善修。

Thus, at the outset you have to meet these eight points of physical conduct, particularly the calming of breathing just as I have described above.

◎第二正釋修習之次第。

2.2.2 The meditative process.

諸道次第,多依辨中邊論所說,由八斷行,斷五過失,修奢摩他。

Broadly speaking, the "stages of the path" tradition indicates that you achieve serenity by means of the eight antidotes which eliminate the five faults listed in Maitreya's Separation of the Middle from the Extremes.

善知識拉梭瓦所傳之教授,更於彼上,加聲聞地所說六力,四種作意,及九住心,

Personal instructions passed down from Geshe Lak-sor-wa explain that in addition to that you have to achieve serenity through the six powers, the four types of attention, and the nine mental states which Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 explains.

德稱大師道次第云﹕「四作意中,攝九住心及斷六過八對治行,是為一切正定方便,眾多契經及《莊嚴經論》,《辨中邊論》,無著菩薩《瑜伽師地論》,中觀宗三編修次等,開示修靜慮之方便中一切皆同。

The scholar Yön-den-drak says: The methods of the nine mental states are included in the four attentions, and the six faults and the eight applications which are their antidotes are the method [for achieving] all concentrations. This is agreed upon in all teachings about the techniques formed meditative stabilization—including those in most sūtras, Maitreya's 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》 and 《Separation of the Middle from the Extremes》, Asanga's texts on the levels, and Kamalasila's 《three Stages of Meditation》.

若能先住正定資糧,以此方便勵力修習,決定能得妙三摩地。

Those who first have the preconditions for concentration will definitely attain concentration if they use these methods to work at it.

現在傳說修靜慮之甚深教授中,全不見此方便之名,若不具足正定資糧及無此方便,雖長時修定終不成。」

Nowadays, supposedly profound oral traditions on meditative stabilization lack even the names of these techniques. These texts do not indicate that you will achieve concentration without the preconditions for concentration and these techniques, even if you work at it for a long time.

此語是於諸大教典修定方法,得清淨解。

This is stated in his text on the stages of the path; it speaks of reaching pure certainty about how the classic texts present the way to achieve concentration.

又總三乘修道次第,無著菩薩於五分中極廣決擇,
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故彼為最廣開示修行之論,然於一處廣說之事,餘則從略。

In that regard, since the general way of teaching the stages of the paths of the three vehicles is demonstrated at length in the noble Asanga's five texts on the levels, the texts that teach these practices are very extensive. Among these five, one text gives a detailed explanation, while the others do not.

止觀二法,攝決擇說於聲聞地應當了知,故聲聞地最為廣者。

Asanga's 《Compendium of Determinations》 says that his 《Śrāvaka Levels》 should be used to understand serenity and insight, so it is the 《Śrāvaka Levels》that is most extensive.

慈尊則於《莊嚴經論》《辨中邊論》,說九住心及八斷行,獅子賢論師蓮花戒論師寂靜論師等,印度智者隨前諸論,亦多著有修定次第,

Also, the venerable Maitreya discusses the methods of the nine mental states and the eight antidotes in his 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》 and 《Separation of the Middle from the Extremes》. Following them, such learned Indian masters as Haribhadra, Kamalaśīla, and Ratnākaraśānti wrote much about the process of achieving concentration.

又除緣佛像空點種子形等,所緣不同外,其定大體,前諸大論與咒所說,極相隨順。

On the general sense of concentration the tantras are very consistent with the explanations in these classic texts, except that they use different objects of meditation, such as divine bodies, drops, and syllables.

尤於定五過失,及除過方便等經反較詳,然能依彼大論修者,幾同晝星。

In particular, texts in the sūtra class provide very extensive discussions of problems—such as the five faults of concentration—and ways of clearing them away. However, those who know how to practice on the basis of those texts alone are as rare as stars in the daytime.

將自心垢責為論過,謂彼唯能開闢外解,妄執開示心要義理別有教授。

Those who impose on those texts the stains of their defective understanding derive only a superficial comprehension and maintain that the instructions that reveal the quintessential meaning lie elsewhere.

於彼所說修定次第,正修定時,竟為何似,全無疑惑。

When the time comes for them to put into practice the process of achieving concentration which these texts explain, they do not even research how to do it.

然此教授一切修行,前後皆取大論所出,故於此處修定方法,亦取大論而為宣說。

The personal instructions of this treatise stress only the practices from the beginning to the end which are derived from the classic texts. Therefore, herein I will explain the methods used to achieve concentration drawing on the classic texts.

此又分二,一 引生無過三摩地法,二 依彼引生住心次第。

This explanation of the meditative process has two sections:
1. How to develop flawless concentration
2. The stages in which the mental states are thereby developed

初又分三,一 繫心所緣先如何修,二 住所緣時應如何修,三 住所緣後應如何修。 

1 How to develop flawless concentration.
This has three parts:
1.1. What to do prior to focusing the attention on an object of meditation?
1.2. What to do while focusing on an object of meditation ?
1.3. What to do after you focus on an object of meditation ?

今初

1.1. What to do prior to focusing the attention on an object of meditation?

◎若不能滅不樂修定,樂定障品所有懈怠,初即於定不令趣入,縱一獲得亦不能相續,速當退失,故滅懈怠為初切要。

If you cannot stop the laziness of being disinclined to cultivate concentration and of enjoying things that are not conducive to it, from the outset you will not gain entry into concentration; even if you do attain it once, you will be unable to sustain it, so it will quickly deteriorate. Therefore, it is most crucial to stop laziness in the beginning.

若能獲得身心輕安,喜樂增廣,晝夜行善能無疲厭,懈怠盡除,

When you attain pliancy in which your mind and body are full of delight and bliss, you will stop laziness inasmuch as you will be able to cultivate virtue all day and night without weariness.

然生輕安,須於能生輕安之因妙三摩地,恆發精進。

To develop this pliancy, you must be able to have continuous enthusiasm for the concentration that causes pliancy.

然生精進,須於正定具足恆常猛利希欲,欲樂之因,須由觀見正定功德生堅信心,

To develop this enthusiasm, you need a continuous, intense yearning that is intent on concentration. As a cause for this yearning you need steadfast confidence in and fascination with the good qualities of concentration.

故應先思正定功德,數修信心。

So to start with, cultivate again and again a confidence that is aware of the good qualities of concentration.

此等次第,修
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者觀之極顯決定,故應認為最勝宗要。

When you see this process in practice, you will understand this most vital point with the clearest sense of certainty.

《辨中邊論》云﹕「即所依能依,及所因能果。」

Maitreya's 《Separation of the Middle from the Extremes》 states:
The basis and what is based upon it
Are the cause and its result.

所依謂欲勤所依故,能依謂勤或名精進,欲因謂信深忍功德,勤果謂輕安。

Here, the "basis" is yearning, which is the basis of endeavor; "what is based upon it" is the endeavor or enthusiasm. The cause of yearning is confident faith in the good qualities of concentration. The result of endeavor is pliancy.

此中所修正定功德,謂由獲得奢摩他已,現法樂住,身心喜樂,及由獲得身心輕安,於善所緣心如欲轉。

In this context, the good qualities of concentration areas follows: When you reach serenity, your mind is filled with delight and your body filled with bliss, so you are happy in this lifetime.

又由息滅於顛倒境散亂無主,則諸惡行皆不得生,隨所修善皆有強力。

Also, since you have attained physical and mental pliancy, you can turn your attention to any virtuous object of meditation you choose. Since you have quelled uncontrolled distraction toward the wrong sort of objects, you are not constantly involved in wrongdoing and any virtue you do is very powerful.

又止為依,能引神通變化等德,尤由依止,能生通達如所有性毘缽舍那,速疾能斷生死根本。

Based on serenity, you can achieve good qualities such as the superknowledges and supernormal powers. In particular, it is on the basis of serenity that you develop the knowledge of insight that knows the real nature, whereby you can quickly cut the root of cyclic existence.

若能思惟此諸功德,則於修定增長勇悍,生勇悍故恆樂修定,極易獲得勝三摩地,得已不失能數修習。

If you reflect on any of these good qualities, you will become aware of, and meditate upon, things that strengthen your inclination to cultivate concentration. When this inclination arises, you will be continually prompted from within to cultivate concentration, so it will be easy to attain concentration. Also, since you will cultivate it repeatedly even after attaining it, you will be unlikely to lose it.

第二住所緣時應如何修分二,一 明心住之所緣,二 心於所緣如何安住。

1.2. What to do while focusing on an object of meditation ?
This section has two parts:
1.2.1. Identifying the object of meditation upon which your attention is set.
1.2.2. How to focus your mind on the object of meditation.

初又分二,一 總建立所緣,二 明此處之所緣。

1.2.1. Identifying the object of meditation upon which your attention is set.
This has two parts:
1.2.1.1. A general presentation of objects of meditation
1.2.1.2. Identifying objects of meditation for this context

初又分三,一 正明所緣,二 顯示何等補特伽羅應緣何境,三 顯示所緣異門。  

1.2.1.1. A general presentation of objects of meditation.
This has three sections:
1.2.1.1.1. The objects of meditation themselves
1.2.1.1.2. Who should meditate on which objects
1.2.1.1.3. Synonyms of the object of meditation

今初

1.2.1.1.1. The objects of meditation themselves

◎如世尊言,修瑜加師有四所緣,謂周徧所緣,淨行所緣,善巧所緣,淨惑所緣。

The Bhagavan stated that yogis have four types of objects of meditation, these being: (a) universal objects of meditation, (b) objects of meditation for purifying your behavior, (c) objects of meditation for expertise, and (d) objects of meditation for purifying afflictions.

周徧所緣復有四種,謂有分別影像,無分別影像,事邊際性,所作成辦。

(a) Universal objects of meditation.
Universal objects of meditation are of four types: (1) discursive images, (2) non-discursive images, (3) the limits of existence, and (4) achievement of your purpose.

就能緣心立二影像,初是毘缽舍那所緣,二是奢摩他所緣。

The two types of images (discursive and non-discursive) are posited in terms of the observer: the first is the object of insight, and the second is the object of meditative serenity.

言影像者,謂非實所緣自相,唯是內心所現彼相。

The image is not the actual specifically characterized object upon which your mind is focused, but rather the appearance of that object's aspect to your mind.

由緣彼相正思擇時,有思擇分別故,名有分別影像。

When you carry out analysis while observing an object, then the image is discursive since analytical thinking is present.

若心緣彼不思擇住,無思擇分別故,名無分別影像。

When you stabilize your mind without analysis while observing an object, the image is said to be non-discursive since analytical thinking is absent.

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又此影像為何所緣之影像耶,謂是五種淨行所緣,五種善巧所緣,二種淨惑所緣之影像。

As for these images, what objects of meditation are they images of? They are the images, or aspects, of the five objects of meditation for purifying behavior, the five objects of meditation for expertise, and two objects of meditation for purifying afflictions.

就所緣境立事邊際,此有二種,如云唯爾更無餘事,是盡所有事邊際性,如云實爾非住餘性,是如所有事邊際性。

The limits of existence are posited with reference to the observed object. There are two: The limits of existence for the diversity of phenomena, which are expressed in the statement, "Just this is all there is; there is nothing more"; and the limits of existence for the real nature, expressed in the statement, "This alone is how things exist; they do not exist in any other way."

其盡所有性者,謂如於五蘊攝諸有為,於十八界及十二處攝一切法,四諦盡攝所應知事,過此無餘。

In the case of the diversity of phenomena, this means that the five aggregates include all composite phenomena; the eighteen constituents and twelve sources include all phenomena; and the four truths include everything there is to know; there is nothing else beyond this.

如所有性者,謂彼所緣實性真如理所成義。

In the case of the nature, this means that reason establishes the truth or reality of those objects of meditation.

就果安立所作成辦,謂於如是所緣影像,由奢摩他毘缽舍那,作意所緣,若修若習若多修習,遠離粗重而得轉依。

Achievement of purpose is posited in terms of the result with either serenity or insight you direct your attention to the image of those objects of meditation. Then you stabilize on them, become accustomed to them, and, by virtue of repeated practice you become free from your dysfunctional tendencies, undergoing a fundamental transformation.

◎淨行所緣者。

(b) Objects of meditation for purifying your behavior

由此所緣能淨貪等增上現行,略有五種,謂不淨,慈愍,緣起,界別,阿那波那。

Objects of meditation for purifying behavior are objects that purify behavior in which attachment or the like [hatred, delusion, pride, or discursiveness] is predominant. There are five such objects of meditation. Respectively they are: (1) ugliness, (2) love, (3) dependent-arising, (4) differentiation of constituents, and (5) inhalation and exhalation.

緣不淨者,謂緣毛髮等三十六物,名內不淨,及青瘀等名外不淨。

(1) Of these, the objects of meditation on ugliness consist of the thirty-six uglinesses pertaining to the body, such as head and body hair, and external uglinesses such as a corpse's turning blue.

是於內心所現不淨非可愛相,任持其心。

When an aspect of impurity and ugliness arises in your mind, you keep your attention on it.

慈謂普緣親怨中三,等引地攝,欲與利益安樂意樂。

(2) Love involves focusing on friends, enemies, and persons toward whom you have neutral feelings, and having an attitude—at the level of meditative equipoise—of providing them with help and happiness.

即由慈心行相,於彼所緣任持其心,名曰緣慈,是於心境俱說為慈。

Keeping your attention on these objects of meditation with a loving attitude is called "meditation on love"; love refers both to the subjective attitude and to the object.

緣緣起者,謂唯依三世緣起之法,生唯法果,除法更無實作業者,實受果者,即於是義任持其心。

(3) Regarding the object of meditation dependent-arising: All there is in the past, the present, and the future is dependent-arising in which effects that are mere phenomenal factors simply arise based on mere phenomenal factors. Apart from these, there is no performer of actions or experiencer of their effects. You focus your attention on them and hold it there.

緣界差別者,謂各別分析地水火風空識六界,即緣此界任持其心。

(4) As for the object of meditation on the differentiation of the constituents: You differentiate the factors of the six constituents—earth, water, fire, air, space, and consciousness. You focus your attention on them and hold it there.

緣阿那波那者,謂於出入息,由數觀門住心不散。

(5) Regarding the object of meditation on inhalation and exhalation: You focus your attention without distraction by counting and watching the breath move in and out.

◎善巧所緣亦有五種。

(c) Objects of meditation for expertise.

謂善巧蘊,界,處,緣起及處非處。

There are also five objects of meditation for expertise, namely expertise in (1) the aggregates, (2) the constituents, (3) the sources, (4) dependent-arising, and (5) what is and is not possible.

蘊謂色等五蘊,蘊善巧者,謂能了
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知除蘊更無我及我所。

(1) The aggregates are the five aggregates of form and the others [feeling, discrimination, compositional factors, and consciousness]. Expertise in these is knowing that, apart from these aggregates, the self and what pertains to the self do not exist.

界謂眼等十八界。界善巧者,謂知諸界從自種生,即知因緣。

(2) The constituents are the eye and the others of the eighteen constituents. Expertise in them is knowing the causal conditions by which those constituents arise from their own seeds.

處謂眼等十二處,處善巧者,謂知內六處為六識增上緣,知外六處為所緣緣,知無間滅意為等無間緣。

(3) The sources are the eye and the others of the twelve sources. Expertise in these is knowing that the six internal sources are the dominant conditions for the six consciousnesses, that the six external sources are the object-conditions, and that the mind which has just ceased is the immediately preceding condition.

緣起謂十二有支,緣起善巧者,謂知緣起是無常性苦性無我性。

(4) Dependent-arising is the twelve factors. Expertise in them is knowing that they are impermanent, suffering, and devoid of self.

處非處者,謂從善業生可愛果是名為處,從不善業生可愛果是名非處,處非處善巧者即如是知。

(5) What is and is not possible refers to such things as it being possible for a pleasant fruition to arise from a virtuous action, but not possible for a pleasant fruition to arise from a non-virtuous action. Expertise in this is knowing that things are this way.

此即善巧緣起,其中差別,此是了知各別之因。

This is a particular case of expertise in dependent-arising; the difference is that you understand diverse causes.

又以此等作奢摩他所緣之時,謂於蘊等所決定相,任持其心一門而轉。

When you use these as objects of meditation for cultivating serenity, you keep your attention on just one of the perspectives in which the aggregates, etc. may be known.

◎又淨惑者,謂唯暫傷煩惱種子及永斷種。

(d) objects of meditation for purifying afflictions.
Purifying afflictions means either merely reducing the strength of the seeds of the afflictions or else utterly eradicating the seeds.

初所緣者,謂觀欲地乃至無所有處下地粗相,上地靜相。

In the former case, the objects of meditation are the comparative coarseness of each lower stage and comparative calmness of each higher stage, proceeding from the level of the desire realm up to the level of Nothingness.

第二所緣,謂四諦中無常等十六行,又以此等作奢摩他所緣之時,謂於諸境所現影像,隨心決定任持其心不多觀察。

In the latter case, the objects of meditation are impermanence and the other of the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths. When you use these as objects of meditation for cultivating serenity, you do not analyze, but instead keep your attention on any one cognition of an aspect of those objects that appears to it.

◎《修次中編》說三種所緣。謂十二分教,一切皆是隨順趣向臨入真如,總攝一切安住其心。

Kamalaśīla's 《second Stages of Meditation》 states that objects of meditation are three. (1) After you have brought together everything that all twelve branches of scripture say about determining, setting into, and having settled into reality, you stabilize your mind upon it.

或緣蘊等總攝諸法,或於見聞諸佛聖像安住其心。

(2) You observe the aggregates, etc., which include phenomena to some extent. (3) You stabilize your mind on the physical form of the Buddha, which you have seen and heard about.

其於蘊等住心之法,謂先了知一切有為五蘊所攝,次於五蘊漸攝有為,即緣五蘊任持其心。

How do you stabilize your mind on things such gates? When you understand how all composition be included within the five aggregates, you mentally collect them, gradually, into these five aggregates.

譬如觀擇而修,能生觀慧。如是攝略而修,亦引生勝三摩地,攝心所緣而不流散,此即對法論之教授。

Then you observe them and keep your attention on them. Just as discerning wisdom when you cultivate differentiation, so when you cultivate collectedness you develop concentration wherein your attentionis brought together on the object of meditation without moving toward other objects. This is a personal instruction of the knowledge tradition.

如是亦應了知界處攝
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一切法,漸攝於彼任持其心。

Likewise, when you understand how all phenomena can be included within the constituents and sources, you mentally collect them into these categories and keep your attention on this.

◎又,淨行所緣,上品貪行等易除貪等,依此易得勝三摩地,故是殊勝所緣。

Among these four types of objects of meditation, objects of meditation for purifying behavior, as explained, facilitate the stopping of attachment and such in those whose behavior is dominated by attachment and such. They are special objects of meditation because you may readily attain concentration based upon them.

善巧所緣,能破離彼諸法之補特伽羅我,隨順引生通達無我毘缽舍那,故是極善奢摩他所緣。

Object of meditation for expertise are conducive to the development of the insight that knows emptiness inasmuch as they refute a personal self that is not included among those phenomena. Therefore, they are excellent objects of meditation for cultivating serenity.

淨惑所緣,能總對治一切煩惱,故義極大。

Objects of meditation for dispelling afflictions serve as general antidotes to the afflictions, so they have great significance.

徧滿所緣,離前所緣非更別有,故當依殊勝奢摩他所緣修三摩地。有緣塊石草木等物而修定者,自顯未達妙三摩地所緣建立。

The universal objects of meditation are not distinct from the aforementioned three. Therefore, since you must achieve concentration using as object of meditative serenity that has a particular purpose, who achieve concentration using things like pebbles and twigs for objects of meditation are clearly ignorant of the teachings on objects of concentration.

又有說於所緣住心,皆是著相,遂以不繫所緣無依而住,謂修空性。

There are those who suppose that if you focus on an object of meditation and keep your attention on it, this is an apprehension of signs. They claim that meditation on emptiness means just stabilizing your mind without any basis, without focusing on any object of meditation.

此是未解修空之現相。

This is a total misunderstanding of how to meditate on emptiness.

當知爾時若全無知,則亦無修空之定。

If you have no consciousness at that time, then neither will you have a concentration that cultivates emptiness.

若有知者,為知何事,故亦定有所知,有所知故,即彼心之所緣,以境與所緣所知,是一義故。

On the other hand, if you have consciousness, then you are conscious of something, so you have to accept that there is an object of consciousness in terms of which consciousness is posited. If there is an object of consciousness, then precisely that is the object of meditation of that mind, because "object," "object of meditation," and "object of consciousness" have the same meaning.

是則應許,凡三摩地皆是著相,是故彼說不應正理。

In that case, they would have to accept that even their method of concentration would apprehend signs. Thus, their approach is not correct.

又是否修空,須觀是否安住通達實性之見而修,非觀於境有無分別,下當廣說。

Furthermore, whether something constitutes meditation on emptiness is determined by whether it is meditation founded upon the view that knows the way things are; it is not determined by whether there is any conceptualization vis-à-vis the object. This will be demonstrated at length below.

又說安住無所緣者,彼必先念「我當持心,必令於境全不流散。」次持其心。

Even those who claim to stabilize their minds without an object of meditation must think first, "I will keep my attention such that it does not stray toward any object whatsoever," and then keep their attention in that way.

是則緣於唯心所緣,持心不散,言無所緣與自心相違。

After they have focused like that on the mind itself as an object of meditation, they must be certain to fix on this object without straying in any way. Thus, their own experience contradicts their claim that they have no object of meditation.

故明修定諸大教典,說多種所緣,義如前說,故於住心之所緣,應當善巧。

In this way, the classic texts on achieving concentration explain that there are many objects of meditation. The purposes of these meditative bases for stabilizing your mind are as explained above, so you should gain expertise in them.

又《修次論》說,奢摩他所緣無定,《道炬論》說隨一所緣者,

Kamalaśīla's 《Stages of Meditation》 explains that the object of meditation of serenity is indeterminate, and Atisha's 《Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment》 says, "[It is] whatever object or objects of meditation that are appropriate."

義謂不須定拘一種所緣差別,非說凡事皆作所緣。

These statements mean that you are not required to stick with one particular object of meditation; they do not show how to define the range of existing objects of meditation.

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◎二顯示何等補特伽羅應緣何事。

1.2.1.1.2 Who should meditate on which objects

若貪增上,乃至尋思增上補特伽羅,如聲聞地引《頡隸伐多問經》云﹕

As there are various kinds of people, from those with a preponderance of attachment to those with a preponderance of discursiveness, Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 cites an answer to a question of Revata:

「頡隸伐多,若有苾芻勤修觀行,是瑜伽師。若唯有貪行,應於不淨緣安住其心,

"Revata, if attachment uniquely dominates the behavior of a monkyogi, a practitioner of yoga, then he focuses his mind on the object of meditation of ugliness.

若唯有瞋行,應於慈愍,若唯癡行,應於緣性緣起,若唯有慢行,應於界差別安住其心。」

If hatred dominates his behavior, he meditates on love; if ignorance dominates his behavior, then he meditates on the dependent-arising of this condition; if pride dominates his behavior, he focuses his mind on the differentiation of the constituents."

又云﹕「若唯有尋思行,應於阿那阿波那念安住其心,如是名為於相稱緣安住其心。」

And: If discursiveness uniquely dominates his behavior, then he focuses his mind on an awareness of the exhalation and inhalation of the breath. In this way, he focuses his mind on an appropriate object of meditation.

《聲聞地》云﹕「此中若是貪瞋痴慢及尋思行補特伽羅,彼於最初,唯應先修淨行所緣而淨諸行,其後乃能證得住心。又彼所緣各別決定,故於所緣定應勤修。」

Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 also states: In this regard, persons whose behavior is dominated by attachment, hatred, ignorance, pride, or discursiveness should, for a while at the outset, just purify those behaviors by contemplating objects of meditation for purifying behavior. After this they will see the stability of their minds, and they will ascertain only their objects of meditation. So they should definitely persevere at using their objects of meditation.

故於所緣定應勤學,若是等分或是薄塵補特伽羅,於前所緣隨樂攝心,無須決定。

Thus, you certainly should work with these objects of meditation. If you are a person whose behavior is balanced, or one whose afflictions are slight, then it suffices to keep your attention on whichever of the aforementioned objects of meditation you like; it is not necessary to have a particular one.

《聲聞地》云﹕「等分行者,隨其所樂精勤修習,唯為住心非為淨行,如等分行者,薄塵行者,當知亦爾。」

Asańga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 states: Those whose behavior is balanced should work at whichever object they like so as to attain just mental stability; this is not for the purpose of purifying behavior. Understand that the same applies to those with slight afflictions.

貪等五增上者,謂先餘生中於貪等五,已修已習已多修習,故於下品貪等五境,亦生猛利長時貪等。

Being dominated by desire—or another of those five afflictions means that in a previous life you were fully involved in that affliction, became accustomed to it, and expressed it frequently, so that now even if there is a minor object of desire—or another of the five—that affliction arises in a strong and long-lasting form.

等分行者,謂先餘生中於貪等五不修不習不多修習,然於彼法未見過患,未能厭壞,故於彼境無有猛利長時貪等,然貪等五非全不生。

Balanced behavior means that you were not fully involved in desire and the others in your previous lives, you did not become accustomed to them, and you did not express them frequently. Still, you have not recognized that they are faults and you have not suppressed them, so while desire and such are not predominant or of great duration, it is not as though they do not occur.

薄塵行者,謂先餘生中於貪等五不修習等,見過患等,故於眾多美妙上品可愛境等貪等徐起,於中下境全不生起。

Having slight afflictions means that you were not fully involved and soon in desire—or another of those five—in your previous lives, and you do see their disadvantages, etc. Therefore, with respect to objects of desire and such that are major, many, or intense, your desire and such arise slowly, while for moderate or minor objects, these afflictions do not arise at all.

又增上貪等經極長時,等分行者,非極長時,薄塵行者,速證心住。

Also, when desire or another of those five afflictions is predominant, you take a longtime to realize stability; with balanced behavior, you do not take an excessively longtime; with minor afflictions, you do so very quickly.

善巧所緣為何補特伽羅之所勤修,如《頡隸伐
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多問經》云﹕

An answer to a question of Revata [as cited in the 《Śrāvaka Levels》] also explains who works on objects of meditation for expertise:

「頡隸伐多,若有苾芻勤修觀行,是瑜伽師。

Revata, if a monk-yogi, a practitioner of yoga,

若愚一切諸行自相,或愚我有情命者生者能養育者,補特伽羅事,應於蘊善巧安住其心。

is confused about the characteristic nature of all composite things, or confused about the thing called person, self, living being, life, that which is reborn, or the nourisher, he should focus his mind on the objects of meditation for expertise in the aggregates.

若愚其因應於界善巧,

If he is confused about causes, he should focus on the objects of meditation for expertise in the constituents.

若愚其緣應於處善巧,

If he is confused about conditions, he should focus on the objects of meditation for expertise in the sources.

若愚無常苦空無我,應於緣起處非處,善巧安住其心。」

If he is confused about impermanence, suffering, and selflessness, he should focus on the objects of meditation for expertise in dependent-arising, and on what is and is not possible.

此五所緣正滅愚癡。

As this states, you mainly use these five objects of meditation to stop confusion.

淨惑所緣為何補特伽羅安住其心,亦如前經云,

Which persons should focus their minds on objects of meditation for dispelling afflictions is also stated in the same sūtra [Answering the questions of Revata]:

「若樂離欲界欲,應於諸欲粗性,諸色靜性,若樂離色界欲,應於諸色粗性,無色靜性,安住其心。若樂通達及樂解脫遍一切處薩迦耶事,應於苦諦集諦滅諦道諦,安住其心。」

If you wish to be free from the attachment of the desire realm, focus your mind on the coarseness of the desire realm and the calmness of the form realm; if you wish to be free from the attachment of the form realm, focus your mind on the coarseness of the form realm and the calmness of the formless realm. If you wish to become disenchanted with all of the perishing aggregates, and wish to be free from them, then focus your mind on the truth of suffering, the truth of origins, the truth of cessation, and the truth of the path.

此諸所緣,通於毘缽舍那思擇修習,及奢摩他安住修習二種所緣,非唯奢摩他之所緣。

You can use these objects of meditation both for analytical meditation with insight and for stabilizing meditation with serenity, so they are not exclusively objects of meditation for serenity.

然因有是新修奢摩他之所緣,有是奢摩他生已勝進所緣,故於修止所緣中說。

Still, since some serve as objects of meditation for newly achieving serenity and others are used for special purposes after attaining serenity, I have explained them here in the section on the objects of meditation of serenity.

◎三顯示所緣異門。

1.2.1.1.3. Synonyms of the object of meditation

正定所緣攝持心處,即前所說心中所現所緣之影像。其名異門,如《聲聞地》云﹕

There are synonyms for the images or mental appearances of these objects of meditation explained above, these "points upon which the attention is kept, " or "meditative bases for concentration," as stated in Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》:

「即此影像亦名三摩地相,亦名三摩地所行境界,亦名三摩地方便,亦名三摩地門,亦名作意處,亦名內分別體,亦名光影,如是等類,當知名為所知事同分影像諸名差別。」

Also, that image is called "image" ; it also is called "sign of concentration," "object in the domain of concentration," "technique of concentration," "door to concentration," "basis of attention." "body of internal conceptualization," and "appearing image." Know these as synonyms of the image which accords with the object that is known.

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菩提道次第廣論卷十四終