菩提道次第廣論卷十五

◎ 二明此處所緣者。

1.2.1.2 Identifying objects of meditation for this context

已說如是多種所緣,今當緣何而修止耶。

Now, from among the many objects of meditation I have explained, on which object of meditation should you base yourself so as to achieve serenity?

答如前經說,無有限定,須各別緣,以補特伽羅有差別故。

As stated in the sūtra passage cited above, there is no single, definite object; individuals require their particular object of meditation.

尤其上品貪行者等修奢摩他時,所緣各別決定。

Specifically, if you are determined to achieve serenity at the least, and if your behavior is dominated by attachment or another affliction, then you need to use a certain type of object of meditation.

若不爾者,縱或能得奢摩他相應三摩地,然不能得實奢摩他。

For if you do not, then you may attain a concentration that approximates serenity, but you will not attain actual serenity.

若不久修淨行所緣,尚說不得正奢摩他,況全棄捨淨行所緣。

It is said that even if you train with an object of meditation for purifying behavior, you will not achieve serenity unless you do so for a very long time, so how could you ever achieve it by rejecting objects of meditation for purifying behavior?

多尋思者尤應修息。

In particular, if you have a predominance of discursiveness, then you definitely have to meditate on the breath.

若是等分補特伽羅,或是薄塵補特伽羅,於前所說諸所緣中,隨意所樂作所緣處。

If you are a person of balanced behavior or a person with slight afflictions, then, as explained before, make your meditative base whichever of the objects of meditation explained above most appeals to you.

又《修次第中下二編》,依於《現在諸佛現住三摩地經》及《三摩地王經》,說緣佛像修三摩地。

Alternatively, Kamalaśīla's 《middle and last Stages of Meditation》 follow the 《Sūtra on the Concentration Which Perceives the Buddha of the Present Face to Face》 and the 《King of Concentrations Sūtra》 in stating that you achieve concentration by focusing on the body of the Tathāgata.

覺賢論師說多所緣,如云﹕

Also, the master Bodhibhadra explains a multitude [of objects]:

「止略有二,謂向內緣得及向外緣得。

Here, serenity is twofold: that attained by looking inward and that [based on] an object of meditation viewed outwardly.

內緣有二,謂緣全身及依身法,

Of those, looking inward is twofold: focusing on the body and focusing on what is based on the body.

緣身又三,謂 即緣身為天形像,緣骨鏁等不淨行相,緣骨杖等三昧耶相。

Of those, focusing on the body is threefold: focusing on the body itself in the aspect of a deity; focusing on ugliness, such as skeletons; and focusing on special insignia such as a khatvānga.

緣依身法又有五種,謂緣息緣細相緣空點緣光支緣喜樂。

Focusing on what is based on the body is fivefold: focusing on the breath, focusing on subtle divine insignia, focusing on the drops, focusing on the aspects of light rays, and focusing on delight and bliss.

向外緣者亦有二種,謂殊勝平庸,殊勝又二,謂緣佛身語。」《道炬論釋》亦引此文。

Serenity based on an object of meditation viewed outwardly is twofold: special and common. Of those, the special is twofold: focusing on a deity's body and focusing on a deity's speech. Atisha's 《Commentary on his own Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment》 also cites this passage.

◎其緣佛身攝持心者。隨念諸佛故能引生無邊福德,

In this regard, to keep your attention on the physical form of the Buddha is to recall the Buddha, so it gives rise to limitless merit.

若佛身相明顯堅固,可作禮拜供養發願等,積集資糧之田及悔除防護等淨障之田,故此所緣最為殊勝。

When your image of that body is clear and firm, then there is a special intensification of your meditative focus on the field in relation to which you amass merit through prostration, offering, aspirational prayer, etc., as well as on the field in relation to which you purify obscurations through confession, restraint, etc.

又如《三摩地王經》
- p.356 -
說,臨命終時隨念諸佛不退失等功德,若修咒道於本尊瑜伽尤為殊勝,有如是等眾多義利。

This kind of meditation serves many purposes. As stated earlier in the extract from the 《King of Concentrations Sūtra》, it has advantages such as your not losing your mindfulness of the Buddha as you die. And when you cultivate the mantra path, it heightens deity yoga, etc.

又此勝利及思佛之法,廣如《現在諸佛現住三摩地經》所明。

The 《Sūtra on the Concentration Which Perceives the Buddha of the Present Face to Face》 gives a very clear and detailed treatment of these benefits, as well as the method for directing your mind toward the Buddha.

又如《修次下編》所說,定應了知,因恐文繁,茲不俱錄。

Therefore, you should definitely come to know them from there, as Kamalaśīla states in his 《last Stages of Meditation》. Fearing verbosity, I do not write of them here.

故求所緣既能成就勝三摩地,餘諸勝事兼能獲得,如是乃為方便善巧。

Consequently means when you seek an object of meditation by which you achieve concentration and also fulfill, along the way, some other special purpose.

◎當以何等如來之像為所緣耶?

How do you use something like the bodily form of the Tathâgata as an object of meditation?

答,如《修次下編》云﹕「諸瑜伽師,先當如自所見所聞如來形像安住其心修奢摩他。

Kamalaśīla's 《last Stages of Meditation》 states:

當常思惟如來身像黃如金色,相好莊嚴,處眾會中,種種方便利益有情。

In that regard, practitioners should first fix their attention on whatever they may have seen and whatever they may have heard about the bodily form of the Tathāgata, and then achieve serenity. The bodily form of the Tathāgata is a golden color like that of refined gold, adorned by the signs and exemplary features, dwells with its retinue, and effects the aims of living beings through various means.

於佛功德發生願樂,息滅昏沉掉擧等失,乃至明見如住面前,應於爾時勤修靜慮。」

By continuously directing their minds toward it, yogis develop a wish for its good qualities and quell laxity excitement, and so forth. They should continue meditative stabilization for as long as they can see it clearly, as though the Buddha was sitting in front of them.

《三摩地王經》云﹕「佛身如金色,相好最端嚴,菩薩應緣彼,心轉修正定。」如此所說而為所緣。

The 《King of Concentrations Sūtra》 also says that you should use this kind of object of meditation:
The glorious protector of the world
With a body the color of gold—
The bodhisattva whose mind engages this object
Is said to be in equipoise.

此復有二,謂由覺新起及於原有令重光顯,後易生信又順共乘,故於原有令相明顯。

Of the two ways to do this, newly imagining the Buddha's form and visualizing the Buddha's form as though actually present, the latter has a distinct advantage in developing faith and fits within the context of practices common to both sūtra and tantra vehicles. Therefore, use a visualized image of the Buddha's form as though it already actually exists.

◎先求持心所緣處者。謂先當求一若畫若鑄極其善妙大師之像,數數觀視善取其相,數數修習令現於心,

When you seek your object of meditation, the basis upon which you first keep your attention, look for an excellent painting or sculpture of the Teacher's body and view it again and again. Remembering its features, firmly familiarize yourself with the mental appearance of the object.

或由尊長善為曉喩,思所聞義令現意中求為所緣,

Or, seek your object of meditation by reflecting upon the meaning of the eloquent descriptions of the Buddha's form which you have heard from your guru and make this image appear in your mind.

又所緣處非是現為畫鑄等相,要令現為真佛形相。

Furthermore, do not let the object of meditation have the aspect of a painting or sculpture; rather, learn to have it appear in your mind with the aspect of an actual buddha.

有說置像於前目覩而修,智軍論師善為破之,以三摩地
- p.357 -
非於根識而修,要於意識而修。

Some set an image before them and immediately meditate on it while staring at it. The master Ye-shay-day's rejection of this practice is excellent. He says that concentration is not achieved in the sensory consciousnesses, but in the mental consciousness;

妙三摩地親所緣境,即是意識親所緣境,須於意境攝持心故。

thus, the actual object of meditation of a concentration is the actual object of a mental consciousness. Therefore you must keep your attention on this.

又如前說是緣實境之總義,或影像故,

He also states what I explained above, that you have to focus your mind on the appearance of the actual concept, or mental image, of the object of meditation.

影像亦有粗細二分,有說先緣粗分,待彼堅固次緣細分,自心亦覺粗分易現起故,應先從粗像為所緣境。

Furthermore, there are both subtle and gross features of the Buddha's bodily form. It is stated elsewhere that at first you focus on the gross features, and later, when these are solid, you must focus on the subtle. As experience also shows that it is very easy to raise an appearance of the gross features, you must develop your object of meditation in stages starting with the gross features.

◎尤為要者,如下說乃至未得如欲定時,不可多遷異類所緣修三摩地。

An especially important point is that, until you have accomplished satisfactory concentration as explained below, it is never appropriate for you to cultivate meditative concentration by shifting your focus to many different types of objects of meditation.

若換眾多異類所緣修三摩地,反成修止最大障礙。

For if you cultivate concentration by moving to many dissimilar objects of meditation, it will be a great impediment to achieving serenity.

故於修定堪資定量之《瑜伽師地論》及《三編修次》等,皆說初修定時,依一所緣而修,未說遷變眾多所緣。

Thus, authoritative texts on achieving concentration, such as Asanga's texts on the levels and Kamalaśīla's 《three Stages of Meditation》, explain that when first achieving concentration, you do so in relation to a single object of meditation; they do not say that you shift among many objects of meditation.

聖勇論師於修靜慮時顯此義云﹕「應於一所緣,堅固其意志,若轉多所緣,意為煩惱擾。」

Aryasūra also clearly states this [in his Compendium of the Perfections]:
Solidify your mind's reflection
By being firm on one object of meditation;
Letting it flow to many objects
Leads to a mind disturbed by afflictions.
He says this in the section on achieving meditative stabilization.

《道炬論》云﹕「隨於一所緣,令意住善境。」

Also, Atisha's 《Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment》 states:
Settle your mind in virtue
On any single object of meditation.

說「於一」言是指定詞,故先應緣一所緣境,待得止已後乃緣多。

He makes his point with the phrase "on any single。 " Thus, having first focused on one object of meditation and attained serenity, you may then focus on many objects of meditation.

《修次初編》云﹕「若時已能攝其作意,爾時乃能廣緣蘊處界等差別。如解深密等說瑜伽師緣十八空等,眾多差別所緣。」

Kamalaśīla's first Stages of Meditation states:
Only when you have earned concentrated attention should you focus in detail on the particulars of objects, such as the aggregates and constituents. It is in light of the particulars of yogis' meditation on objects such as the eighteen emptinesses that the Buddha states in sūtras such as the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》 that there are many aspects of objects of meditation.

◎如是初得攝心所緣之量,謂先次第明了攀緣一頭二臂,身體餘分及二足相,其後思惟身之總體。

Accordingly, the measure for having first found the object of meditation upon which you keep your attention is as follows: Visualize several times in sequence the head, two arms, the rest of the trunk of the body, and the two legs. After that, if when you bring your attention to the body as a whole

心中若能現起半分粗大支分,縱無光明應知喜足,於彼攝心。

you can raise before your mind just half of the gross components, then—even without radiant clarity—you should be satisfied with just this and fix your attention upon it.

此中道理,若以此許猶不為足而不持心,欲求明顯數數攀緣,所緣雖可略為顯了,然非僅不得妙三摩地
- p.358 -
令心安住,且障得定。

Why? if, dissatisfied with just that you fail to fix attention on it and want more clarity instead, then, as you visualize it again and again, the object of meditation will become a bit clearer but you will not obtain a stable concentration; in fact, you will prevent yourself from getting this.

又若所緣雖不明顯,然於半分所緣持心,亦能速得妙三摩地,次令明顯其明易成,此出智軍論師教授,極為重要。

Even though the object of meditation is not very clear, if you keep your attention on precisely this partial object of meditation, you will quickly obtain concentration. Since this then intensifies clarity, you will readily achieve clarity. This comes from the instructions of Ye-shay-day, it is of great importance.

◎又所緣境現顯之理,雖有二種四句之說,

As for the manner in which the object of meditation appears, you can describe two sets of four possibilities:

然由補特伽羅種性別故,種種無定行相現顯有難有易,即已現中有明不明,此二復有堅不堅固。

for various types of persons, it is easy or difficult to have an image appear, and its appearance may be clear or unclear; moreover, both clear and unclear images may be either stable or unstable. However, as there is considerable variation, you cannot definitely determine what will occur.

若修密咒天瑜伽時,天之行相定須明顯,乃至未能明顯之時,須修多種明顯方便。

When you are practicing deity yoga in the mantra vehicle, you definitely have to establish a clear image of the deity. So until this arises, you must use many methods for developing it.

此中佛相若極難現,於前隨一所緣持心,以此主要在得止故。

However, in this non-tantric context, if you have great difficulty in making an image of a deity appear, you may adopt any one of the objects of meditation presented above and keep your attention on it because the main purpose is simply to achieve a concentration of meditative serenity.

又緣像修,若像不現任持心者,不能成辦所樂之義,故須行相現而持心。

Also, in this non-tantric context, if you practice by focusing on the body of a diety and you keep your attention there even though the image is not appearing, then you will not achieve your desired aim. Thus, you have to keep your attention on an image that does not appear.

又緣總身像時,若身一分極其明顯可緣彼分,若彼復沒仍緣總像,

Keep your attention on the entirety of the body to the extent that it appears. If some parts of the body appear especially clearly keep your attention on them. When they become unclear, return your attention to the entirety of the body.

若欲修黃而現為紅顯色不定,或欲修坐而現為立形色不定,或欲修一而現為二數量不定,或欲修大而現為小形體不定,

At that time, there may be uncertainty as to color, as when you want to meditate on gold, but red appears; or uncertainty as to shape, as when you want to meditate on a sitting shape, but a standing shape appears; or uncertainty as to number, as when you want to meditate on one thing, but two things appear; or uncertainty as to size, as when you want to meditate on a large body, but a tiny body appears.

則定不可隨逐而轉,唯應於前根本所緣為所緣境。

As it is utterly inappropriate to pursue such distortions, you must use only the original object of meditation, whatever it may be, as your object of meditation.

第二心於彼所緣如何安住分三,一 立無過規,二 破有過規,三 示修時量。  

1.2.2. How to focus your mind on the object of meditation.
This has three parts:
1.2.2.1 presenting the flawless method,
1.2.2.2 eliminating flawed methods, and
1.2.2.3 indicating the length of sessions.

今初

1.2.2.1 The flawless method

◎此中所修妙三摩地具二殊勝,一令心明顯具明顯分,二專住所緣無有分別具安住分,有於此上加樂為三,餘有加澄共為四者。

The concentration that you will accomplish here has two special features: vivid intensity—an intense mental clarity—and non-discursive stability, staying one-pointedly on the object of meditation. Some add bliss to these, making three features; others add limpidity as well, making four.

然澄淨分初殊勝攝,不須別說。適悅行相喜樂之受,是此所修定果,非初靜慮未到分攝定相應中所能生起。

However, limpidity is included in the first feature, so it does not have to be listed as a separate item. Delight and bliss which impart a sense of well-being do occur as results of the concentration that you will accomplish here, but they are not concomitant with all of the concentrations which are included in the access to the first meditative stabilization.

三乘功德最勝依處第四靜
- p.359 -
慮三摩地中,皆無身樂心樂相應而起,故此不說。

Also, the concentration of the fourth meditative stabilization—which is said to be the the basis for achieving the good qualities of all three vehicles—is not associated with any physical or mental bliss. Thus, delight and bliss are not counted as features here.

極明顯分,雖於無色地攝少數定中亦不得生。

While some of the concentrations on the formless levels lack highly vivid intensity, there is nothing wrong with presenting vividness as one of these two features.

然如《莊嚴經論》云﹕「靜慮除無色。」除少獲得自在菩薩,餘諸菩薩皆依靜慮地攝正定引發功德,故說明顯殊勝無有過失。

For, Maitreya's 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》 refers to "meditative stabilization other than the formless realm." This means that bodhisattvas—except for some powerful bodhisattvas—achieve good qualities by relying on concentrations within the levels of meditative stabilization.

昏沉能障如是明顯,掉擧能障無分別住,沉掉二法為修淨定障中上首,亦即此理。

Since the development of this sort of vivid intensity is blocked as long as there is laxity, while one-pointed non-discursiveness is blocked as long as there is excitement, laxity and excitement are the chief obstacles to achieving genuine concentration.

故若不識粗細沈掉及雖識已,不知淨修勝三摩地破彼二軌,況云勝觀,即奢摩他亦難生起,故智者求三摩地,於此道理應當善巧。

So if you do not understand how to identify accurately the subtle and coarse forms of laxity and excitement, or if you do not know how to correctly sustain a concentration which stops these once you have identified them, then it will be impossible for you to develop serenity, not to mention insight. Hence, those who diligently seek concentration should master these techniques.

沉掉乃是修止之違緣,違緣及破除之方法皆於下說,故此當說修止順緣引生三摩地之理。

Laxity and excitement are conditions unfavorable for achieving serenity. Later, I will discuss how to identify these unfavorable conditions and how to actually stop them. Now I shall explain how to develop concentration in a manner conducive to achieving serenity.

◎此中三摩地者,謂心專住所緣,復須於所緣相續而住。

Here, concentration refers to your attention remaining one-pointedly on an object of meditation; in addition it must stay with the object continuously.

此須二種方便,一於根本所緣令心不散,二於已散未散將散不散如實了知,初即正念次是正知。

Two things are needed for this: (1) a technique in which your attention is not distracted from whatever it had as its original object of meditation, and (2) an accurate awareness of whether you are distracted and whether you are becoming distracted. The former is mindfulness; the latter is vigilance.

如《莊嚴經論釋》云﹕「念與正知是能安住,一於所緣令心不散,二心散已能正了知。」

Vasubandhu's 《Commentary on the Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》 states:
Mindfulness and vigilance bring about close mental focus because the former prevents your attention from wandering from the object of meditation and the latter clearly recognizes that your attention is wandering.

若失正念忘緣而散,於此無間棄失所緣,故明記所緣念為根本。由此正念於所緣境住心之理,

If a lapse in mindfulness leads to forgetting the object of meditation, you will be distracted and will immediately lose the object upon which you are meditating. Therefore, the foundation of cultivating concentration is mindfulness which does not forget the object. How does such mindfulness focus your mind right on the object of meditation?

謂如前說明觀所緣,若能現起最下行相,令心堅持,令心策擧,即此而住莫新思擇。

Once you have at least visualized the object of meditation in the minimal manner as explained above, generate a powerful apprehension of the object that tightly holds it with your attention. After you have set your attention at a high level, stabilize it on the object without newly analyzing anything.

念如《集論》云﹕「云何為念,於串習事,心不忘為相,不散為業。」

With regard to mindfulness, Asanga's 《Compendium of Knowledge》says: What is mindfulness? In regard to a familiar object, your mind is not forgetful and operates without distraction.

此說具足三種差別,一所緣境之差別,先未習境,念則不生,

This indicates that mindfulness has three features. (1) Its observed object is "a familiar object," since mindfulness does not occur with regard to a previously unfamiliar object.

故說於串習事,此中即令現起先所決定所緣之相。

In this case, the image of a previously ascertained object of meditation appears.

行相差別者,謂心不忘,即心明記其境,
- p.360 -
此中謂不忘所緣。

(2) Its subjective aspect or manner of apprehension is your mind's not forgetting the object, as indicated by the phrase "your mind is not forgetful." In this case, it is your mind's non-forgetfulness of the object of meditation.

言不忘者,非因他問或自思察,僅能記憶師所教示所緣如此,是須令心安住所緣,相續明記無少散動,

What does non-forgetfulness mean? It is not mentioned in reference to merely being able to remember what your guru taught you about the object of meditation, thinking or saying "The object of meditation is like this" when you cast your mind to it or when someone asks you about it. Rather, it refers to how your attention is fixed on the object of meditation and brings it to mind clearly without even the slightest distraction.

能生散亂其念便失,故於所緣安住心已,

If you are distracted, you lose your mindfulness to the extent that you are distracted. Therefore, after you have set your attention on the object of meditation in the manner explained above,

須起是念已住所緣,次不更起重新觀察,相續將護此心勢力,是修念心最切要處。

you think, "In this way, I have fixed my attention on the object of meditation." Then, without new examination, you sustain the force of that awareness in unbroken continuity. This is the most critical point in the technique of maintaining mindfulness.

作業差別者,謂從所緣心不餘散,如是調心令住所緣。如調象喩,

(3) Its function is to keep your attention from wandering from the object of meditation. Fixing your attention on an object of meditation in this way and controlling it is said to be like taming an elephant.

譬如於一堅牢樹柱,以多堅索繫其狂象,次調象師令如教行,若行者善,若不行者,即以利鈎數數治罰而令調伏。

An elephant trainer ties a wild elephant to a tree or sturdy post with many thick ropes. If it does as the trainer teaches it, then fine; if not, it is subdued and controlled, struck repeatedly with a sharp iron hook.

如是心如未調之象,以正念索縛於前說所緣堅柱,若不住者,以正知鈎治罰調伏漸自在轉。

Your mind is like the untamed elephant, you bind it with the rope of mindfulness to the sturdy pillar of an object of meditation such as I explained above. If you cannot keep it there, you must gradually bring it under control by goadingit with the iron hook of vigilance.

如《中觀心論》云﹕「意象不正行,當以正念索,縛所緣堅柱,慧鈎漸調伏。」

Bhavaviveka's 《Heart of the Middle Ways》 states:
The erring elephant of your mind
Is securely bound by the rope of mindfulness
To the sturdy pillar of the object of meditation
And is gradually controlled with the iron hook of intelligence.

《修次中編》亦云﹕「用念知索,於所緣樹,繫意狂象。」

Also, Kamalaśīla's 《second Stages of Meditation》 states: With the ropes of mindfulness and vigilance, tie the elephant of your mind to the tree trunk, the object of meditation.

前論說正知如鈎,後論說如索亦不相違,正能令心於所緣境相續住者是明記念,正知間接亦能令心安住所緣,謂由正知了知沉掉或將沉掉,依此能不隨沉掉轉,令住根本所緣事故。

It is not contradictory that the former text likens vigilance to an iron hook while the latter text compares it to a rope. Mindfulness directly and continually fastens your attention to the object of meditation. However, indirectly vigilance also focuses your attention on the object of meditation, for you depend on noticing actual or incipient laxity and excitement with vigilance, and then stabilize your attention on the primary object without falling under their influence.

◎又如世親菩薩亦說,念知俱能令心住所緣故,又說依念生定及說記念如索,正於所緣相續繫心。

Also, as cited above, the master Vasubandhu says that both mindfulness and vigilance focus your mind on the object of meditation. It is said that you achieve concentration on the basis of mindfulness and that mindfulness is like a rope that actually fastens your attention to the object of meditation continuously, so mindfulness is the main technique to sustain in achieving concentration.

故修念之法即修能引三摩地之主因,念之行相為定知相,故修定者若無定知之相,唯憨然而住,心縱澄淨然無明顯定知,有力之念定不得生,亦未能破微細之沉,故
- p.361 -
三摩地唯有過失。

Also, mindfulness has a way of apprehending its object that carries a sense of certitude. If, while maintaining concentration, you stabilize your mind casually without a solid sense of certainty about the object, then your mind may take on a limpid clarity, but it will not have the vivid intensity of certain knowledge, so you will not develop powerful mindfulness. Therefore, subtle laxity will be unchecked, and only flawed concentration will ensue.

又全不住像等所緣,唯修無分別心者,亦須憶念住心教授,令心於境全不分別。次則令心不流不散,令不流散,義同正念,明記所緣,故仍未出修念之規。如彼修者,亦須修習具足定知有力之念。

Those who cultivate just non-discursive attention without stabilizing their attention on other objects of meditation, such as a divine body, bring to mind the personal instruction, "Stabilize your mind without thinking of any object at all." Then they must keep their attention from being distracted and wandering. This nondistraction is synonymous with mindfulness that does not forget the object of meditation. Thus, since this meditation is simply the technique of maintaining mindfulness, those who meditate in in this way must also rely on a mindfulness that carries the force of certain knowledge.

◎第二破有過規。

1.2.2.2 eliminating flawed methods,

有此邪執是所應破,謂「若如前說策擧其心無分別住,雖無少許沉沒之過,掉擧增上,現見不能相續久住,若低其擧緩其策,現見住心速能生起。

There are misconceptions to dispel, such as the following:
Wrong position: If you set your consciousness at a high level as you have explained above and then tightly stabilize it without discursiveness, there will indeed not be even the slightest fault of laxity. However, since this increases excitement, you will see that you cannot prolong stability, and your elevated consciousness is brought down. As you will see that relaxing a well-tightened mind quickly leads to stability, this technique is a great personal instruction.

遂謂此方便是大教授,發大音聲唱言善緩即是善修。」

Reply: With a sense of assurance, these words proclaim in a loud voice, "Good relaxation is good meditation."

此是未辨沉修二法差別之論,以無過定,須具前說二種差別,非唯令心無分別住一分而足。

Yet, they fail to differentiate laxity and meditation. Thus, as I explained above, flawless concentration must have two features; the firm stability of nondiscursive attention does not alone suffice.

若謂於境令心昏昧可名為沉,今無彼暗內心澄淨,故三摩地全無過失,

Wrong position: At that time, laxity is when your mind darkens and becomes clouded; without this, your mind has a limpid clarity, so your concentration is flawless.

此乃未辨昏沉二法差別之言,下當廣說。

Reply: As this statement does not differentiate lethargy and laxity, I will elaborate on them later.

故若太策擧雖能明了,由掉增上住分難生,若太緩慢雖有住分,由沉增上又不明了,其不墮入太急太緩,

Thus, if you use an intense cognition that is too tight, you may have clarity, but excitement will predominate so that it will be hard to develop stability. If you sustain your meditation after becoming greatly relaxed, then you may have stability, but laxity will predominate so that there is no vivid intensity.

緩急適中界限難得,故極難生俱離沉掉妙三摩地。

It is very hard to find the right balance of tension so as to be neither too taut nor too relaxed, and for this reason it is hard to develop a concentration free from laxity and excitement.

大德月云﹕「若精勤修生掉擧,若捨精勤復退沒,此界等轉極難得,我心擾亂云何修。」

With this in mind, the master Candragomin stated in his 《Praise of Confession》:
If I use exertion, excitement arises;
If abandon it, slackness ensues;
It is hard to find the right balance in this—
What should I do with my troubled mind?

精勤修者謂太策擧,策則生掉,

The meaning of this is as follows: "Use exertion" means your mind is too tight; when you do this, excitement arises.

若捨策勵太緩慢者,心住其內復起退沒。

When you let the tightness go and relax too much, you produce slackness, with your attention remaining inward.

義謂俱離沉掉平等安住,心於此界平等而轉實屬難得。

So it is difficult to find the proper balance for an even state of mind, free from laxity and excitement.

《佛靜釋》云﹕「言精勤者,謂於善品發起勇悍,策勵而轉。」

Again, Buddhasanti's 《Commentary on the "Praise of Confession"》 says: "Exertion" here refers to tightly focusing your mind on virtue with clear enthusiasm.

又云﹕「由見掉過捨其精勤,棄其功用心
- p.362 -
於內沉。」

And: After you see the problem of incipient excitement, you abandon your exertion; that is, you give up your effort. Thereupon, your attention becomes slack.

《悔讚》又云﹕「若勵力轉起掉擧,若勵緩息生退沒,修此中道亦難得,我心擾亂云何修。」

Candragomin's Praise of Confession also states:
If I strain to engage the object, excitement Occurs;
If I relax, slackness develops.
It is hard to find a practice midway between these two—
What should I do with my troubled mind?

其釋中云﹕「若起功用勵力運轉,便生掉散摧壞其心,從功用中心不得住,若如是行即是過失。

Buddhasanti's commentary on this is clear: If you strain for a tight focus on the object and exert yourself, your mind becomes excited and distracted, and you thereby destroy your concentration. Therefore, you are not attaining mental stability through exertion. This is problematic,

為遮此故,緩息勵力運轉之心,棄捨功用,則由忘所緣等之過失,令心退沒。」

so in order to avoid it you relax your mind, which has been straining to engage the object, and give up your exertion. Then faults such as forgetting the object of meditation lead to slackness and laxity.

故說遠離沉掉二邊,修此中界,平等運轉妙三摩地極屬難得,若可太緩則無難故。

Therefore, Candragomin says "it is hard to find" a concentration that is the right balance or midway practice free from the two extremes of laxity and excitement. If getting quite relaxed were adequate, there would not be any problem at all.

◎又說從緩發生沉沒,則以此理修三摩地,顯然非理。又極緩心僅明澄分,猶非滿足須策勵相,

Since the text says that this leads to laxity, it is obviously improper to use this method to achieve concentration. It is not enough to have the clarity which is simply the limpid quality of a very relaxed mind; there also must be a degree of tightness in the way you apprehend the object.

如無著菩薩云﹕「於內住等住中,有力勵運轉作意。」此於九種住心方便,初二心時,作如是說。

In his discussion of the method used in the first two of the nine mental states, the noble Asanga says: For stabilizing and properly stabilizing your mind on this object, there is the attention of tight focus.

《修次初編》云﹕「除沉沒者,當堅持所緣。」

Also, Kamalaśīla's 《first Stages of Meditation》 says: After you clear away laxity, firmly hold just the object of meditation.

《修次中編》云﹕「次息沉沒,必須令心明見所緣。」

And Kamalaśīla's 《second Stages of Meditation》 states:
Then, after you have quelled laxity, by all means make it so that your mind very clearly sees just the object of meditation.

言心明見,故非說境略明顯。是說心相極顯極堅,修念之規此為最要。未能知此盲修之相,謂修愈久忘念愈重,擇法之慧日返愚鈍,有此多過反自矜為有堅固定。

When Kamalaśīla says "your mind very clearly sees", mean only that the object is clear; he means that you mind's way of apprehending the object is clear and firm. The above-mentioned way of maintaining mindfulness is extremely important. Without knowing it your meditation will show a great numbers of faults, such as slipping into great forgetfulness commensurate with the amount of your meditation or dulling the wisdom that differentiates phenomena. Nevertheless you mistakenly presume that you have a solid concentration.

◎若謂如前以念令心住所緣已,爾時可否分別觀察於所緣境持未持耶?

Question: While mindfulness fixes your attention on the object of meditation as explained above, is it appropriate to monitor your meditation and think about whether you are holding the object of meditation well?

答定須觀察。如《修次中編》云﹕「如是於隨樂所緣安住心已,後即於此等住其心,善等住已,即應於心如是觀察,為於所緣心善持耶,為沉沒耶,為外散耶。」

Reply: You have to do this, for Kamalaśīla's second Stages of Meditation states: After you have thus set your attention on whatever your chosen object of meditation may be, fix it there continuously. While you stay right with the object, analyze and investigate your mind, thinking: "Is my mind apprehending the object of meditation well? Or is it lax? Or is it distracted by the appearance of external objects?"

此非棄捨三摩地已,如是觀察,是住定中觀其住否根本所緣,若未住者,當觀隨逐沉掉何轉,非纔住定時太短促亦非太久。是於
- p.363 -
中間時時觀照。

It is not that you stop your concentration and then look at your mind. Rather, while maintaining your state of concentration, you just look to see whether your attention is staying where it was previously set on the primary object of meditation and, if it is not, whether there is laxity or excitement. After you have settled into on you monitor this at moderate intervals, neither too often nor too seldom.

若於前心未盡勢力,修此觀察,能生心力相續久住,亦能速疾了知沉掉。

If you do this while the intensity and force of the previous awareness are not quite gone, it takes place within the perspective of this awareness. This has the purpose of both enabling long-lasting, intense stability, and letting you quickly recognize laxity and excitement.

◎然能時時憶念所緣而修者,必須有力相續運轉正念之因,故應修念。

Accordingly, this is how you sustain your mindfulness, for a necessary cause of powerful and continuous mindfulness is sustaining your meditation by repeatedly reminding yourself, at intervals, of the intended object of meditation.

如《聲聞地》云﹕「云何心一境性,謂數數隨念,同分所緣流注無罪適悅相應,令心相續,名三摩地亦名為善心一境性。

Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 says: In this regard, what is a one-pointed mind? Any continuum of attention that remembers again and again, focuses on a consistently similar object, and is continuous, free of misdeeds, and possessed of delight is called "concentration," as well as "a one-pointed virtuous mind."

何等名為數數隨念,謂於正法聽聞受持,從師獲得教授教誡,以此增上,令其定地諸相現前,於此所緣正念流注隨轉安住。」

What does it remember again and again? You perceive the object of meditation—the characteristic of someone in equipoise—from the viewpoint of any teaching that you have memorized or heard, and upon which you have received instructions and explications from your gurus. You engage and focus on this object with continuous mindfulness.

《辨中邊論釋》云﹕「言念能不忘境者,謂能不忘住心教授意言之增語。」

Also, Sthiramati's 《Explanation of the "Separation of the Middle from the Extremes"》 states: The statement "Mindfulness means not forgetting the object of meditation" means that you mentally express the instructions on stabilizing your mind.

故修正念為於所緣滅除忘念,能滅之明記所緣者,謂所緣意言即是數數作意所緣,

Therefore, you maintain mindfulness to stop forgetfulness wherein you stray from the object of meditation. Hence, non-forgetfulness of the object of meditation—wherein forgetfulness is stopped-is when you "mentally express" the object of meditation; you bring the object of meditation to mind again and again.

譬如恐忘所知少義,數數憶念即難失忘。

For example: when you are anxious about forgetting something you know, it will be hard to forget if you recall it again and again.

故若時時憶念所緣,是生有力正念所須。於所緣境攝心不散而正觀察,是生有力能覺沉掉正知方便。

Thus, you have to remind yourself of the object of meditation at moderate intervals in order to develop strong mindfulness. The way to strengthen your vigilance, which notices laxity and excitement, is to lock your attention on the object of meditation without distraction, and then to monitor it.

若謂此等皆是分別而遮止者,應知難生有力正念正知。

Realize that if you repudiate such a procedure by thinking, "This is discursiveness," it will be extremely difficult to develop powerful mindfulness and vigilance.

◎第三示修時量。

1.2.2.3 indicating the length of sessions.

由念令心住所緣境,應住幾久有無定量。

Question: When you fix your attention on the object of meditation with mindfulness, is there a definite length or the session, such that you say, "I will stabilize my mind on the object only սոtll then?"

答西藏各派諸師皆說﹕「時短數多。」

Reply: On this matter, all earlier gurus of the various. Tibetan lineages say that you have to do numerous short sessions.

此中因相,有說「時短樂修中止,則於下次愛樂修習,若時長久則覺厭煩。」

Why? Some say that if you meditate in brief sessions and stop when it is going well, you will still be eager to meditate at the end of each session, while if the session is long, you will become weary.

有說「時久易隨沉掉增上而轉,則極難生無過正定。」

Others explain that if the session is long, it is easy to fall under the sway of laxity and excitement, so it is hard to develop flawless concentration.

聲聞地等諸大論中,未見明說修時之量,

Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 and other classic texts do not state the length of sessions clearly.

《修次下編》云﹕「由是次第或一正時,或半修時,或一修時,乃至堪能爾時應修。」

However, Kamalaśīla's 《third Stages of Meditation》 does say: At this stage in meditative equipoise for twenty-four minutes, an hour-and-a-half, three hours, or as long as you can.

此是
- p.364 -
已成奢摩他後,修勝觀時所說時量,初修止時想亦同此,應如是行。

While this statement occurs in the context of the length of the session for cuItivating insight after you have already achieved serenity, it is clear similar when you are first achieving serenity, so do it this way.

若能如前修念正知,時時憶念觀察所緣,時雖略久亦無過失。

If you practice the techniques of mindfulness and vigilance explained above—reminding yourself of the object of meditation and monitoring your meditation at moderate intervals—it does not matter if the session is a little long.

然初業者,若時長久多生忘念散亂,爾時其心或沉或掉,非經久時不能速知,或雖未失念,然亦易隨沉掉而轉,沉掉生已不能速知。

However, usually one of two things will happen when you are a beginner and have a long sesion. On the one hand you may become distracted due to forgetfulness. In this case, you will not recognize the occurrence of any laxity or excitement quickly but only after a long period of time. On the other hand, though you may not lose your mindfulness, it is easy to fall under the sway of laxity and excitement, and you will not quickly recognize them when they occur.

前能障生有力記念,後能障生有力正知,是則沉掉極難斷除。

The first situation hinders the development of strong mindfulness; the latter hinders the development of strong vigilance. Hence, it is very difficult to stop laxity and excitement.

尤以忘失所緣不覺沉掉,惡於未忘所緣不能速疾了知沉掉,故為對治散亂失念,修念之法極為重要。

In particular, failing to recognize laxity and excitement after you have become distracted due to forgetting the object of meditation is much worse than failing to quickly recognize laxity and excitement while not forgetting the object of meditation. So the techniques for maintaining mindfulness—the previously explained remedies which stop the breakdown of mindfulness ensuing from distraction—are very important.

若忘念重,正知嬴劣,不能速疾了知沉掉則須短小,若不忘念能速了知沉掉之時,長亦無過。

If you have great forgetfulness ensuing from distraction, as well so weak that it does not quickly recognize laxity and excitement then your session must be short. If it is hard for you to forget the object and you can quickly notice laxity and excitement, it does not matter if the session is a little long.

故密意云,或一時等,未說定時,總以隨心所能,故云「乃至堪能。」

This is the idea behind Kamalaśīla's statement above that the duration of a session is indefinite: twenty-four minutes and so forth. In short, since the duration has to comport with your mental capacity, Kamalaśīla says "as long as you can."

又若身心未生疾病即應安住,有病不應勉強而修,無間放捨除治諸界病難乃修,是諸智者所許,如是修者應知亦是修時支分。

If temporary injury to your mind or body does not occur, set your mind in equipoise. If such injury does occur, do not persist in meditating, but immediately stop your session and then clear away the impediments in your mental and physical constituents. Then meditate. This is what the adepts intended, so recognize that doing this is an aspect of how long a meditation session should be.

第三住所緣後應如何修分二,一 有沉掉時應如何修,二 離沉掉時應如何修。

1.3. What to do after you focus on an object of meditation ?
This has two sections:
1.3.1 What to do when laxity and excitement occur
1.3.2 What to do when laxity and excitement are absent

初又分二,一 修習對治不知沉掉,二 修習知已為斷彼故對治不勤功用。

What to do when laxity and excitement occur. This has two parts:
1.3.1.1 Using the remedy for failing to recognize laxity and excitement
1.3.1.2 Using the remedy for failing to try to eliminate them even when they are recognized

初又分二,一 決擇沉掉之相,二 於正修時生覺沉掉正知之方便。  

Using the remedy for failing to recognize laxity and excitement. This has two sections:
1.3.1.1.1 the defining characteristics of laxity and excitement, and
1.3.1.1.2 the method for developing vigilance that recognizes them during meditation.

今初

1.3.1.1.1 the defining characteristics of laxity and excitement

◎掉擧如《集論》云﹕「云何掉擧,淨相隨轉,貪分所攝,心不靜照,障止為業。」

Excitement is defined in Asanga's 《Compendium of Knowledge》: What is excitement? It is an unquiet state of mind, considered a derivative of attachment, which pursues pleasant objects and acts as an impediment to meditative serenity.

此中有三,一所緣,可愛淨境。

There are three aspects to this definition: (1) Its object is an attrao tive and pleasant one.

二行相,心不寂靜向外流散,是貪分中趣境愛相。

(2) Its subjective aspect is that your mind is unquiet and scattered outward. As it is a derivative of attachment, it engages its object with a sense of craving.

三作業,能障其心安住所
- p.365 -
緣。

(3) Its function is to impede stabilization of your mind on its object.

於內所緣令心住時,由貪色聲等之掉擧,於境牽心令不自在,貪愛散亂。

When your attention is inwardly fixed upon its object, excitement—which is attached to form, sound, and so on—pulls your attention helplessly toward these objects and causes distraction.

如《悔讚》云﹕「如緣奢摩他,令心於彼住,惑索令離彼,貪繩牽趣境。」

As it says in Candragomin's 《Praise of Confession》:
Just as you are focused on meditative serenity,
Directing your attention toward it again and again,
The noose of the afflictions pulls your attention
Helplessly with the rope of attachment to objects.

問:由餘煩惱,從所緣境令心流散,及於所餘善緣流散是否掉擧?

Question: Is it excitement when there is scattering in which other afflictions distract your mind away from the object—or, for that matter, when there is scattering toward other virtuous objects?

答:掉是貪分,由餘煩惱流散非掉,是二十隨煩惱中散亂心所。於善緣流散隨其所應,是善心心所,非一切散皆是掉擧。

Reply: Excitement is a derivative of attachment, so being distracted by other afflictions is not excitement; rather, it is the mental process of distraction which is one of the twenty secondary afflictions. Scattering toward virtuous objects may involve any virtuous mind or mental process, so not all scattering is excitement.

◎沉者亦譯退弱,與喪心志之退弱不同。於此沉相,雪山聚中修靜慮者,多於「安住不散,相不明澄之昏昧,許之為沉。」

Many translations render laxity as "slackness", but this "slackness" should not be construed as meaning discouragement. As for its definition, most yogis among these snowy peaks seem to consider laxity to be a lethargic state of mind that stays on its object of meditation without scattering elsewhere but lacks limpid clarity.

此不應理。論說昏昧為沉之因,二各別故。

This is incorrect, for lethargy is said to cause laxity, so the two are distinct,

《修次中編》云﹕「此中若由昏沉睡眠所蔽,見心沉沒或恐沉沒。」

as suggested in Kamalaśīla's 《second Stages of Meditation》:If, being oppressed by lethargy and sleepiness, you see your mind become lax, or in danger of laxity....

《解深密經》云﹕「若由昏沉及以睡眠,或由沉沒,或由隨一三摩缽底諸隨煩惱之所染污,當知是名內心散動。」

Also, the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》 says: If there is laxity due to lethargy and sleepiness, or if you are afflicted by any secondary afflictions in meditative absorption, it is a case of internal mental distraction.

此說由昏沉及睡眠力令心沉沒,名內散動故。

This states that when your mind becomes lax due to lethargy and sleepiness, it is distracted inwardly.

《集論》亦於說隨煩惱散亂之時說其沉沒,然彼說散亂亦有善性非定染污。

Asanga's 《Compendium of Knowledge》 also discusses laxity in the context of the secondary affliction of distraction, but distraction as he explains it may also be virtuous, so it is not necessarily afflictive.

昏沉如《集論》云﹕「云何昏沉謂癡分攝,心無堪能,與一切煩惱及隨煩惱助伴為業。」

Of lethargy, then, Asanga's 《Compendium of Knowledge》 says: What is lethargy? An unserviceable state of mind classified as a derivative of delusion, it works to assist all root afflictions and secondary afflictions.

是癡分中身心沉重無堪能性。

So, this derivative of delusion is the heaviness and unserviceability of body and mind.

《俱舍論》云﹕「云何昏沉,謂身重性及心重性,即身無堪能性及心無堪能性。」

Vasubandhu's 《Treasury of Knowledge Autocommentary》 says: What is lethargy? The heaviness of the body and the heaviness of the mind which are the unserviceability of the body and the unserviceability of the mind.

沉沒謂心於所緣執持力緩或不極明,故雖澄淨,若取所緣不極明顯即是沉沒。

Laxity means that your mind's way of apprehending the object of meditation is slack, and it does not apprehend the object with much vividness or firmness. So even if it is limpid, if your mind's way of apprehending the object is not highly vivid, then laxity has set in.

《修次中編》云﹕「若時如盲或如有人趣入闇室或如閉目,其心不能明見所
- p.366 -
緣,應知爾時已成沉沒。」

Kamalaśīla's《second Stages of Meditation》 states: When your mind does not see the object vividly—like a person born blind, or a person entering a dark place, or like having one's eyes shut—then recognize that your mind has become lax.

未見餘論明說沉相。

I have not seen a clear presentation of the definition of laxity in the other classic texts.

沉沒有二,謂善與無記。昏是不善或有覆無記,唯是癡分。

Laxity may be virtuous or ethically neutral, whereas lethargy s either a nonvirtuous or ethically neutral mental obstruction, and it is invariably a derivative of delusion.

諸大經論皆說除遣沉沒,思佛像等諸可欣境及修光明相策擧其心,故心闇境晦及心力低劣,皆應滅除。

Moreover, the classic texts say that to dispel laxity, you must bring to mind pleasant objects such as the body of the Buddha, or meditate on light so as to stimulate your mind. Therefore, you have to stop the object from appearing unclearly, as though darkness were descending on your mind, and you have to put an end to the quality of attention which has become flaccid.

雙具所緣明顯與策擧之力,唯境明顯及唯心澄清非為完足。

You need both a clear object of meditation and a tight way of apprehending the object. Neither a clear object alone nor transparency of the subject alone is enough.

掉擧易了,唯沉沒相諸大經論多未明說故難了知,然極重要,以易於彼誤為無過三摩地故,應如修次所說從修驗上細心觀察而求認識。

It is easy to recognize excitement, but laxity is hard to comprehend since it is not clearly identified in the authoritative classic texts. It is also very important because in this case it is a major point of misunderstanding concerning flawless concentration. Therefore you should experience laxity with an exacting awareness, and on that basis examine it well and identify it in accordance with Kamalaśīla's 《Stages of Meditation》.

◎於正修時生覺沉掉正知之方便者。

1.3.1.1.2 The method for developing vigilance that recognizes laxity and excitement

非唯了知沉掉便足,須於修時能生正知,如實了知沉沒掉擧生與未生。

It is not enough just to have an understanding of laxity and excitement; you have to be able to develop vigilance that accurately detects whether laxity or excitement is present during meditation.

又須漸生有力正知,沉掉生已須生無間能知之正知,固不待言,即於未生將生,亦須正知預為覺了。

Moreover, by gradually developing powerful vigilance, not only must you develop vigilance that recognizes laxity and excitement as soon as they occur, you must also develop a vigilance that recognizes them when they are on the verge of occurring, before they have actually arisen.

修次中下編云﹕「見心沉沒或恐沉沒,」

This is demonstrated by statements in Kamalaśīla's last two Stages of Meditation: If you see your mind become lax, or in danger of laxity...

又云﹕「見心掉擧或恐掉擧,」

And: You see your mind become excited or in danger of become excited.

乃至未生如斯正知,縱自斷言,從彼至此中無沉掉,所修無過,然非實爾,以生沉掉不能知故,有力正知未生起故。

Until you develop such vigilance, you cannot reliably conclude that you have had flawless meditation—free of laxity and excitement— during a given period of time. This is because, not having developed powerful vigilance, you cannot be sure whether laxity and excitement have occurred.

如《中邊論》云﹕「覺沉掉,」覺了沉掉須正知故。

Likewise, in a passage that begins, "There is recognition of laxity and excitement...," Maitreya's 《Separation of the Middle from the Extremes》 says that you need vigilance in order to recognize laxity and excitement.

若未生正知,凡沉掉生必無所覺,則雖久修不覺沉掉,必以微細沉掉耗時。

Accordingly, if you have not developed vigilance such as would preclude any failure to recognize the presence of laxity or excitement, then even if you try to meditate for a long time you will pass the time under the influence of subtle laxity and excitement, failing to sense laxity and excitement while they are occurring.

◎正知云何生耶?

Question: How do you develop this vigilance,

答:前修念法,即修正知重要一因。

Reply: Its most important cause is the process of maintaining mindfulness which I explained above.

以若能生相續憶念,即能破除忘境流散,亦能遮止沉掉生已久而不覺,故生沉掉極易覺了。

if you can develop continual mindfulness, you will be able to avoid forgetting the object of meditation and becoming distracted. Thus, since this prevent prolonged failure to sense the presence of laxity and excitement, you can easily recognize laxity and excitement.

又覺失念之沉掉,與覺未失念之
- p.367 -
沉掉,二時延促觀心極顯。

This will be perfectly evident if you examine in terms of your own experience how long it takes to recognize laxity and excitement when mindfulness is impaired and how quickly you recognize them when it is not impaired.

故《入行論密意說》云﹕「住念護意門,爾時生正知。」

With this in mind, Santideva's 《Engaging in the Bodhisattva Deeds》 states:
When mindfulness dwells
At the gate of your mind for its protection,
Then vigilance will appear.

《辨中邊論釋》云﹕「言正知者由念記言,覺沉掉者,謂安住念始有正知,是故說云由念記言。」

And Sthiramati's 《Explanation of the "Separation of the Middle from the Extremes"》 states: The statement, "There is recognition of laxity and excitement by vigilance if mindfulness does not lapse," indicates that mindfulness, when fully present, is accompanied by vigilance. That is why it says, "if mindfulness does not lapse...."

餘一因者,是正知不共修法,即令心緣佛像等所取之相,或緣能取明了等相,

The following cause of vigilance is distinctive to the way to maintain vigilance. Focus your mind on a visualized image of the body of a deity, etc., or focus on a subjective aspect such as the quality of experience being simply luminous and aware.

次如前說於修念中,觀察於餘散與未散,任持其心,即修正知極切要處。

Then, while you stay mindful as explained above, hold your attention on the object while continuously monitoring whether it is scattering elsewhere. Know that this is critical for the maintenance of vigilance.

《入行論》云﹕「數數審觀察身心諸分位,總彼彼即是守護正知相。」

As Sāntideva's 《Engaging in the Bodhisattva Deeds》 says:
Examining again and again
The states of the body and the mind
Just that, in brief,
Is what it means to preserve vigilance.

由此能生沉掉將生了知正知。由修念法,是遮散後所起忘念,應善辨別。

Thus, with this method you develop vigilance that notices laxity and excitement when they are on the verge of arising, while with the method for maintaining mindfulness you prevent forgetfulness in which attention is distracted and slips away. Hence, you have to properly distinguish these two.

若不爾者,雜一切心全無分別,如今後人修習而修,由混亂因,三摩地果恐亦如是。

Otherwise, if you practice as is done nowadays - combining all these awarenesses with no understanding of their distinctions—I am afraid that the concentration resulting from a muddled cause will itself be muddled.

故應順大論細慧觀察修驗決擇,極為重要,不應唯恃耐勞。

Therefore, it is very important to make a very precise analysis of this in accordance with each of the major authoritative texts, and then to determine it in your practice. Do not place your hopes on sheer determinations.

如《攝波羅蜜多論》云﹕「獨修精進自苦邊,慧伴將護成大利。」

Aryasūra's 《Compendium of the Perfections》 says: Using only joyous perseverance, you will end up exhausted. If you practice with the aid of wisdom, you will achieve the great goal.

◎第二修習知已為斷彼故對治不勤功用。

1.3.1.2 Using the remedy for failing to try to eliminate them even when they are recognized.

修習正念正知之法,若如前說善修習已,生起有力正念正知。

As explained above, you develop very powerful mindfulness and vigilance through proper use of the methods for maintaining mindfulness and vigilance.

由正知故,極細沉掉皆能覺了,必無不知沉掉之過。

Vigilance is then able to notice even very subtle laxity and excitement, so there is no problem recognizing the occurrence of laxity and excitement.

然彼生已,忍受不修破除功用,是三摩地最大過失。

However, when you make no effort to stop those two as soon as they arise, your complacency or failure to apply yourself constitutes an extremely serious problem for your concentration.

若心成習難生遠離沉掉之定,故生沉掉為斷彼故,對治不行應修作行功用之思。

For, if you practice in this way, your mind will form bad habits and then it will be extremely difficult to develop a concentration free of laxity and excitement. Therefore to remedy a failure to apply yourself to the elimination of laxity and excitement, cultivate the intention called application, or effort.

此中分二,一 正明其思滅沉掉法,二 明能生沉掉之因。  

This section has two parts:
1.3.1.2.1 intention and the way that it stops laxity and excitement, and
1.3.1.2.2 the underlying causes of laxity excitement.

今初

1.3.1.2.1 intention and the way that it stops laxity and excitement.

- p.368 -

◎如《集論》云﹕「云何為思,令心造作意業,於善不善無記役心為業。」

Asanga's 《Compendium of Knowledge》: What is intention? It is the mental activity of applying your mind, having the function of drawing your mind to virtue, nonvirtue, or the ethically neutral.

如由磁石增上力故,令鐵隨轉,如是於善不善無記隨一能令心之心所,是名為思。

This is how you should understand it. For example, iron filings are compelled to move under the influence of a magnet. Similarly, the mental process of intention moves and stimulates your mind toward virtue, nonvirtue, or the ethically neutral.

此中是說生沉掉時,令心造作斷彼之思。

So it here refers to an intention that applies your mind to the elimination of laxity or excitement when one of them occurs.

◎為斷沉掉發動心已,復應如何除沉掉耶?

Question: After you have thus aroused your mind to eliminate laxity and excitement, how do you stop laxity and excitement?

心沉沒者,由太向內攝,失攀緣力,故應作意諸可欣事,能令心意向外流散,

Reply: Mental laxity involves a very excessive inward withdrawal, leading to a slippage in the way you apprehend the object of meditation; so you should direct your mind to delightful things that it to expand outward.

謂佛像等極殊妙事,非生煩惱可欣樂法,又可作意日月光等諸光明相。

This should be something like a very beautiful image of the Buddha, not something delightful that gives rise to afflictions. Or bring to mind an image of light, such as sunlight.

沉沒除已,即應無間堅持所緣而修。

When this clears away laxity, immediately tighten the way you apprehend the object and sustain that in meditation.

如《修次初編》云﹕「若由昏沉睡眠所覆,所緣不顯,心沉沒時應修光明想,或由作意極可欣事佛功德等,沉沒除已仍持所緣。」

As Kamalaśīla's 《first Stages of Meditation》 explains: How? when you are overcome with lethargy and sleepiness, when there is a lack of clarity in your apprehension of the object of meditation and your mind has become lax, then meditate on the idea of light or bring to mind the most delightful things, such as the qualities of the Buddha. Dispel laxity in this way and firmly hold on to the object of meditation.

此不應修厭患所緣,由厭令心向內攝故。又以觀慧思擇樂思之境,亦能除沉。

In this situation, do not meditate on a disenchanting object because disenchantment causes your mind to withdraw inward. When you expand your mind by using discerning wisdom to analyze an object of your choice, this also stops laxity.

《攝波羅蜜多論》云﹕「由勤修觀力,退弱而策擧。」

Aryašūra's 《Compendium of the Perfections》 says:
When slack, your mind is stimulated and inspired
By virtue of the energy of striving for insight.

沉沒與退弱者,謂緣所緣力漸低劣說名沉沒,太向內攝說名退弱,故由策擧力及廣所緣即能除遣。

Thus laxity, or slackness, is as follows. The state of mind the two terms describe is called "laxity" because there is a decline in the way you apprehend the object of meditation. It is called "slackness" because there is an excessive withdrawal inward. You counteract it by stimulating the way you apprehend the object and by making the object of meditation extensive, so as to expand your mind.

《中觀心論》云﹕「退弱應寬廣,修廣大所緣。」

Bhavaviveka's 《Heart of the Middle Way》 states:
In the case of slackness, expand your mind
By meditating on an extensive object.

又云﹕「退弱應策擧,觀精進勝利。」

And:
Further, in the case of slackness, inspire yourself
By observing the benefits of joyous perseverance.

《集學論》云﹕「若意退弱,應修可欣而令策擧。」

Also, Santideva's 《Compendium of Trainings》 states: "If your mind becomes slack, inspire yourself by cultivating delight."

諸大智者同所宣說,故除沉沒最要之對治,謂思惟三寶,及菩提心之勝利,並得暇身大利等功德,令如睡面澆以冷水頓能清醒,此須先於功德觀擇修習已生感觸。

The great Scholars and adepts are in agreement on this matter. So here is the most important remedy for stopping laxity: When You reflect on the good qualities of such things as the three jewels, the benefits of the spirit of enlightenment, and the great significance of attaining leisure, it should have a bracing effect on your mind, just as cold water is thrown in the face of a sleeping person. This depends on your having had experience with discerning analytical meditation on these beneficial topics.

又沉沒所依之因,謂昏沉睡
- p.369 -
眠,及能生昏睡之心黑闇相,若修光明則不依彼而生沉沒,生已滅除。

If you cultivate a remedy for being accustomed to the underlying causes of laxity—namely, lethargy, sleepiness, and something that induces these two wherein your mind takes on a gloomy aspect—then laxity resulting from these causes will not arise or, if it has arisen, will stop.

《聲聞地》說﹕「威儀應經行,善取明相數修彼相,及念佛法僧戒捨天六中隨一,或以所餘清淨所緣策擧其心,或當讀誦顯示昏沉睡眠過患之經論,或瞻方所及月星等,或以冷水洗面。」

In this regard, Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 suggests such activities as going for a walk; holding an image of brightness in your mind and familiarizing yourself with it repeatedly; pursuing any of the six recollections—the Buddha, the teaching, the community, ethical discipline, generosity, and the deities; stimulating your mind by means of other inspiring objects of meditation; orally reciting teachings that discuss the faults of lethargy and sleepiness; gazing in different directions and at the moon and stars; and washing your face with water.

若沉微薄,或唯少起勵心正修,若沉濃厚或數現起,則應暫捨修三摩地,如其所應修諸對治,待沉除已後乃修習。

Also, if laxity is very slight and occurs only infrequently, tighten up your apprehension of the object and continue meditating; but if laxity is dense and seems to occur repeatedly, suspend your cultivation of concentration, clear away laxity using any of those remedies, and then resume your meditation.

若心所取內外所緣相不明顯,內心黑闇隨其厚薄,若不斷除而修習者,則其沉沒極難斷除,故應數數修能對治諸光明相。

Whether your object of meditation entails directing your mind inward or outward, if the object is unclear and you have the sense of darkness—slight or dense—descending on your mind, then it will be hard to cut through laxity if you continue to meditate without eliminating it. Therefore, as a remedy for that, repeatedly meditate on the appearance of light.

《聲聞地》云﹕「應以光明俱心,照了俱心,明淨俱心,無闇俱心,修習止觀。

Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 states: Cultivate serenity and insight correctly, with a mind that is bright and radiant, a mind of clear light, free of gloom. On the way to serenity and insight,

汝若如是於止觀道修光明想,設有最初勝解所緣相不分明,光明微小,由數修習為因緣故,於其所緣勝解分明光明轉大。若有最初行相分明光明廣大,其後轉復極其分明光明極大。」

meditate on a sense of brightness in this way. If you do, then even if at the outset your interest in an object of meditation is dull and brightness is fading, the cause and condition of having accustomed yourself to that meditation will clarify your interest in the object of meditation and lead to great brightness. If there is clarity and great brightness at the outset, clarity and brightness will later become still more vast.

此說最初所緣分明者尚須修習,況不分明。

So since he says you should cultivate brightness even when the object of meditation is clear from the beginning, this is all the more true when it is unclear.

應取何等光明之相,即前論云﹕「應從燈明,或大火明,或從日輪,取光明相。」

Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 also describes how to hold the sign of brightness in meditation: Hold in meditation the sign of brightness from the light of an oil lamp, the light of a bonfire, or the orb of the sun.

如此之修光明相,非唯限於修三摩地,餘亦應修。

Meditate on the sign of brightness not only while cultivating concentration, but on other occasions as well.

◎掉擧者,由貪為門,令心追趣色聲等境,此應作意諸可厭事,能令心意向內攝錄,以此息滅掉擧無間,於先所緣應住其心。

In the case of excitement, out of attachment your attention pursues objects such as forms and sounds; so in response to that, bring to mind disillusioning things that cause your attention to be drawn inward. As soon as this calms the excitement, settle your mind on the earlier object of meditation.

修次初編云﹕「若憶先時喜笑等事,見心掉擧,爾時應
- p.370 -
當作意思惟諸可厭事,謂無常等由此能令掉擧息滅,次應勵力令心仍於前所緣境無作用轉。」

Kamalaśīla's 《first Stages of Meditation》 states: When you see that your mind is occasionally becoming excited as you recall previous excitement, play, and so forth, calm the excitement by bringing to mind disillusioning things, such as impermanence. Then strive to engage the object of meditation without your mind becoming involved in activity.

《中觀心論》云﹕「思惟無常等,息滅掉擧心。」

And Bhavaviveka's 《Heart of the Middle Way》 states:
Calm excitement by bringing to mind
Impermanence and so forth.

又云﹕「觀散相過患,攝錄散亂心。」

And,
Pull your mind back from distraction by noting
The faults of the distracting objects.

《集學論》云﹕「若掉擧時,應思無常而令息滅。」

Also, Santideva's 《Compendium of Trainings》 states: "If excitement occurs, calm it by bringing impermanence to mind."

故掉擧太猛或太延長,應暫捨正修而修厭離,極為切要。非流散時,唯由攝錄而能安住,若掉擧無力則由攝錄令住所緣。

So, if very strong or prolonged excitement arises, it is crucial that you relax the meditation for a while and cultivate a sense of disenchantment, rather than attempting to pull in your mind and direct it back to the object of meditation every time it becomes scattered. For excitement that is not so dominant, draw in the scattered attention, and fix your attention upon the object of meditation.

如《攝波羅蜜多論》云﹕「若意掉擧時,以止而遮止。」

This is because Aryašūra's 《Compendium of the Perfections》 states:
When your mind becomes excited stop this disturbance
By calming it and stabilizing your attention.

經中說云﹕「心善安住,」瑜伽釋為掉擧對治。

And Asańga's texts on the levels say that the sūtra passage, "you focus your mind," refers to a remedy for excitement.

◎總之若心掉動,應於所緣善住其心。若沉沒時於可欣境應善策擧,

It is generally said that if your mind is excited, you should focus on the object of meditation, while if it is lax, you should think about a delightful object.

如《聲聞地》云﹕「由是其心於內攝略,若已下劣惑恐下劣,觀見是已,爾時隨取一種淨妙舉相,殷勤策勵慶悅其心,是名策心。云何持心,謂修擧時其心掉動,或恐掉動觀見是已,爾時還復於內攝略其心修奢摩他,是名持心。」

Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 states: Thus, once your mind has become withdrawn inward and you note that there is slackness or the threat of slackness, maintain and gladden your mind by thinking of any inspiring things. This is maintaining your mind. How do you settle your mind? While maintaining your mind, when you note that your mind is excited or that there is the threat of excitement, withdraw your mind inward and settle in a calming stabilization.

心掉動時,不應作意淨可欣境,以是向外散動因故。

When your mind is excited, do not bring to mind inspiring and delightful objects because this will cause your mind to be distracted outward.

◎第二明能生沉掉之因者。

1.3.1.2.2 The underlying causes of laxity excitement.

《本地分》云﹕「何等沉相,謂不守根門,食不知量,初夜後夜不勤修行覺寤加行,不正知住,是癡行性。耽著睡眠,無巧便慧,懈怠俱行欲勤心觀,不曾修習正奢摩他,於奢摩他未為純善,一向思惟奢摩他相,其心昏闇,於所緣境不樂攀緣。」

Asanga's 《Levels of Yogic Deeds》 states:
What are the signs of laxity? Not restraining the sensory faculties; not eating in moderation; not making an effort to practice rather than sleeping during the early and later parts of the night; ongoing lack of vigilance; deluded behavior; over-sleeping; being unskillful; being lazy in one's aspirations, joyous perseverance, intention, and analysis; giving only partial attention to serenity without accustoming yourself to it and fully refining it; letting your mind stay as though in darkness; and not delighting in focusing on the object of meditation.

沉沒相者,應知是說沉沒之因,懈怠俱行者通勤心觀。

Here, "signs of laxity" should be understood as the causes of laxity. The word "lazy" applies to joyous perseverance, intention, and analysis, as well as to aspirations.

又前論云﹕「何等掉相,謂不守根等四如
- p.371 -
前廣說,是貪行性不寂靜性,無厭離心,無巧便慧,太擧俱行欲等如前,不曾修擧,於擧未善唯一向修,由其隨一隨順掉法親里尋等動亂其心。」

The same text also states:
What are the signs of excitement? The first four points listed above for the signs of laxity—not restraining the sensory faculties, etc.; behaving with attachment, having a disquieted manner; lacking a sense of disenchantment; being unskillful; having a great sense of grasping in your aspiration, etc.; failing to accustom yourself to joyous perseverance; meditating in an unbalance way without refining your apprehension of the object of meditation and being distracted by any sort of exciting topic, such as thoughts about relatives.

掉擧相者,謂掉擧因。太擧者,謂於可欣境太執其心,與此俱行欲等四法如前廣說。

The "signs of excitement" are the causes of excitement. "Great grasping" is an excessive mental hold on a delightful object. "Aspiration, etc." refers to the four points [aspiration, joyous per severance, intention, and analysis] explained earlier.

◎由是前說未修中間防護根門等四,於滅沉掉極為利益,沉掉雖微,皆以正知正覺了已,悉不忍受畢竟滅除。

Thus the four practices of which restraint of the sensory faculties is the first, which were discussed earlier in the section on practice between meditation sessions, are important for stopping both laxity and excitement. Moreover, if you recognize those causes and try to stop them, this is obviously very helpful for interrupting laxity and excitement. Therefore, use vigilance to notice even subtle laxity and excitement. You should stop laxity and excitement in every possible way, not tolerating them in any form.

若不爾者,名「不作行。」《辨中邊論》說是三摩地過。

Maitreya's Separation of the Middle from the Extremes says that failing to do this is a fault of concentration called "non-application."

故若有說微細掉擧及散亂等初時難斷,捨而不斷。

Some may gradually give up, thinking, "Slight excitement and distraction persist even though I cut them off at the outset, so I shall not cut them off."

又謂彼等若無猛利恆常相續,微劣短促不能造業故不須斷,

Or if laxity and excitement are not strong and do not persist for long periods, they may think, "Since they are weak and of brief duration, I do not accumulate karmic obstructions. So I do not need to cut them off."

為斷彼故而不作行,此皆不知修習清淨三摩地法,詐現為知欺求定者,以捨慈尊等所決擇修習三摩地之法故。

Those who think this way and fail to apply themselves to the elimination of these hindrances do not know the right way to achieve concentration, yet pretend that they do. They deceive those who aspire to concentration, for their approach places them outside the tradition of methods for attaining concentration laid down by teachers such as the venerable Maitreya.

◎如是滅沉掉時,多因掉擧散亂為障先勵斷彼,由此勵力便能止息粗顯掉散,獲少安住。

Moreover, in terms of counteracting laxity and excitement, at the outset you will most often be interrupted by excitement and distraction, so strive to eliminate them. If, by working on this, you stop gross excitement and distraction, then you will get a little bit of stability;

爾時應當勵防沉沒,勵力防慎沉沒之時,又有較前微細掉動障礙安住,為斷彼故又應策勵,掉退滅已住分轉增,

at this point, make an effort to guard against laxity. If you are on guard against laxity with a heightened awareness, then excitement—more subtle than before—may again interrupt your stability. So strive to eliminate this; if you do stop it, then stability will increase.

爾時又有沉沒現起,故於斷沉又應勵力,

Then laxity will again arise, so try to eliminate laxity.

總散掉時應當錄心,住內所緣而求住分,住分生時勵防沉沒令心明了。

In summary, withdraw your mind from scattering and excitement, inwardly fixing it upon the object of meditation, and seek stability. Each time stability occurs, take great precautions against laxity and bring forth a vivid intensity.

此二輾轉修習無過勝三摩地,不應唯於澄淨住分全無持力俱行明了而起希求。

You will achieve flawless concentration by alternating between these two. Do not expect to attain stability by means of mere limpidity, which lacks the vividness that goes along with an intense way of apprehending the object.

- p.372 -

◎第二離沉掉時應如何修。

1.3.2 What to do when laxity and excitement are absent

如前勤修斷除微細沉沒掉舉,則無沉掉令不平等,其心便能平等運轉,若功用行是修定過,於此對治應修等捨。

By continuing to meditate after eliminating even subtle laxity and excitement, as explained above, your mind will enter a state of equipoise that is free from the imbalances of either laxity or excitement. At this point, it is a fault of concentration to apply or exert yourself, so cultivate equanimity as a remedy for this.

《修次中編》云﹕「若時見心俱無沉掉,於所緣境心正直住,爾時應當放緩功用,修習等捨如欲而住。」

Kamalaśīla's 《second Stages of Meditation》 says:
When laxity and excitement have gone and you see that your attention is calmly remaining on the object of meditation, relax your effort and abide in equanimity; then remain this way for as long as you please.

何故作行或有功用為過失耶?

Question: How can it be that applying yourself, or making an effort, turns into a problem?

此由於心掉則攝錄,沉則策擧,防護修習。有時沉掉俱不現起,若仍如前防沉防掉策勵而修,反令散亂。

Reply: Through meditation, turning your attention inward when your mind is excited and stimulating your mind when it is lax, you gain confidence that laxity and excitement will not occur during each suitable meditation session. At this point you are still extremely wary of laxity and excitement, just as at the outset. Sustaining this is the problem. Your mind will become distracted, so at that time you must know to relax,

如《修次後二編》云﹕「心平等轉,若仍功用,爾時其心便當散動。」

as stated in Kamalaśīla's second and third Stages of Meditation: "If you exert yourself when your mind has entered a state of equipoise, then your mind will be distracted."

故於爾時須知放緩,此是放緩防慎作用,非是放捨持境之力。

This entails relaxing the effort, but not sacrificing the intensity of the way you apprehend your object.

故修等捨,非是一切無沉掉時,乃是摧伏沉掉力時,若未摧伏沉掉勢力無等捨故。

Therefore, this cultivation of equanimity is not to be done every time laxity and excitement are absent, but once you have reduced the force of laxity and excitement; for when you have not done so, there is no equanimity.

◎云何為捨?

Question: What sort of equanimity is this?

答:捨總有三,一受捨二無量捨三行捨,此是行捨。

Reply: Generally, three types of equanimity are taught: (1) the feeling of impartiality, (2) the impartiality that is one among the four immeasurables, and (3) equanimity with respect to application. This is equanimity with respect to application.

此捨自性,如《聲聞地》云﹕「云何為捨,謂於所緣心無染污,心平等性,於止觀品調柔正直任運轉性,及調柔心有堪能性,令心隨與任運作用。」

Its nature is to be understood in accordance with this passage from Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》:
What is equanimity? As your mind attends to objects of meditation associated with serenity and insight, it is focusing with calm - settling, spontaneous mental engagement, a sense of mental wellbeing, effortless mental functioning after becoming serviceable, o and a mental balance free from the afflictions.

謂得此捨時修三摩地,於無沉掉捨現前時,當住不發太過功用。

When you achieve such equanimity—on those occasions when laxity and excitement are absent as you cultivate concentration— stay with this equanimity and let your mind rest without exerting strong effort.

此所緣相,如前論云﹕「云何捨相,謂由所緣令心上捨及於所緣不發所有太精進。」

The signs of this sort of attention are described in the same text: What are the signs of equanimity? The object of meditation places your mind in equanimity; your mind is not overflowing with excessive joyous perseverance with respect to the object of meditation.

修捨之時,亦如彼云﹕「云何捨時,謂止觀品所有沉掉心已解脫。」

The time for cultivating equanimity is also set forth in that text: when is the time for equanimity? In terms of serenity and insight, when your mind is free of laxity and excitement.

如是引發無過三摩地法,是依慈尊《辨中邊論》,

The above explanations of the method for developing flawless concentration are in accord with the venerable Maitreya's teachings in the 《Separation of the Middle from the Extremes》:

如云﹕「依住堪能性,能成一切義,由滅五過失,勤修八斷行。懈怠忘聖
- p.373 -
言,及沉沒掉舉,不作行作行,是為五過失。即所依能依,及所因能果,不忘其所緣,覺了沉與掉,為斷而作行,滅時正直轉。」

Staying with that joyous perseverance,
Your mind becomes serviceable, and you attain all goals.
This occurs as a result of eliminating the five faults
And relying on the eight antidotes.
The five faults are laziness,
Forgetting the instructions,
Laxity and excitement,
Non-application, and application.
The eight antidotes are the basis [yearning], that based on it [effort],
The cause [confidence], the effect [pliancy],
Not forgetting the object of meditation,
Recognizing laxity and excitement,
Application to eliminate them,
And calmly stabilizing your mind when they have been quelled.

其依住者,謂為除障品發勤精進,依此而住,於此能生心堪能性勝三摩地。此能成辦勝神通等一切義利,是神變之足或是所依,故說「能成一切義。」

In those verses, "Staying with that" refers to keeping up the output of joyous perseverance for the sake of dispelling unfavorable conditions. With this, a concentration in which your mind is serviceable arises. Moreover, since this is the foundation, or basis, of supernormal powers which achieve all goals—superknowledge and so forth—you attain all goals.

◎云何能生此三摩地,

What do you do to develop such concentration?

謂為斷除五過失故,勤修八行從此因生。

It develops as a result of using the eight antidotes in order to eliminate the five faults.

五過失者,謂加行時懈怠為過,於三摩地不加行故。

These are the five faults: at the time of preparation, laziness is a fault because you do not apply yourself at concentration.

勤修定時忘失教授是其過失,若忘所緣心於所緣不能定故,

When you are working at concentration, forgetting the instructions is a fault because when you forget the object upon which you were instructed to meditate, your mind is not set in equipoise upon the object of meditation.

已住定時沉掉為過,彼二令心無堪能故。

When it is set in meditative equipoise, laxity and excitement are faults because they make your mind unserviceable。

沉掉生時不作功用是其過失,以此不能滅二過故。

When laxity and excitement occur, lack of effort [non-application] is a fault because it does not quell those two.

離沉掉時行思是過,

When laxity are absent the fault is the intention of application.

修次等說沉掉二過合一為五,若各分別是六過失。

Kamalaśīla's 《three Stages of Meditation》 point out that there are five faults if laxity and excitement are treated as one, six if they are listed separately.

對治此等為八斷行,對治懈怠有四,謂信欲勤安,

Among the remedies for those faults, the eight antidotes, are four remedies for laziness — confidence, yearning, effort, and pliancy.

對治忘念沉掉不作行作行,如其次第謂念,覺了沉掉之正知,作行之思,正住之捨,廣說如前。

Then the remedies for forgetfulness, laxity and excitement, non-application, and application are, respectively, mindfulness, vigilance that recognizes laxity and excitement, the intention of application, and calmly established equanimity. I explained these extensively above.

此即修定第一教授,故蓮花戒論師於三編修次及餘印度諸大論師,於修定時皆數宣說。

These are the most excellent instructions for achieving concentration. They are set forth in the great master Kamalaśīla's 《three Stages of Meditation》, as well as many expositions on achieving concentration by other great Indian scholars.

《道炬論釋》於修止時亦引宣說,道次先覺亦皆說其粗概次第,然見樂修定者,猶未了知應如何修,故廣決擇。

They are also explained in the discussion on achieving serenity in Atisha's commentary on his own 《Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment》. Earlier gurus of the stages of the path have conveyed a rough idea of these points, yet those wishing to cultivate meditative stabilization have not understood how to proceed. Thus, I have set this forth at length.

此乃一切以念正知遠離沉掉修三摩地心一境性共同教授,不應執此是相乘別法,非咒所須,

That mindfulness and vigilance remove laxity and excitement from your mind's one-pointed concentration is a common theme to all personal instructions on this practice. So do not think, "This is a teaching particular to the vehicle of dialectics, but it is not necessary in the mantra vehicle."

《無上瑜伽續》中亦說是所共故。

For it is common to the mantra vehicle as well, since this is also stated in the class of the highest yoga tantras.

- p.374 -

如三補止初章第二品云﹕

The second chapter the first section of the 《glorious Integration Tantra》 states:

「斷行俱行欲三摩地神足,謂住遠離,住於離欲住於滅盡,由正斷成,由彼欲故而正修習,非極下劣及太高擧。」

The concentration of yearning, the foundation of the supernormal abilities associated with remedial application, is based in solitude; it is based in freedom from attachment; and it is based in cessation. There is thorough transformation by means of correct elimination. With this yearning you meditate without being very slack or elated....

於勤觀心三三摩地亦如是說,前說正定妙堪能性,是神變等功德所依,猶如足故名為神足。

It also describes the three concentrations of enthusiasm, of analysis, and of the mind in the same way. Serviceable concentration, as explained above, is the basis for attaining qualities such as supernormal abilities. Therefore, since it is like a foundation, it is called the foundation of supernormal abilities.

辨中邊論釋等說成此定略有四門,

Texts such as Sthiramati's 《Explanation of the "Separation of the Middle from the Extremes"》 explain that there are four avenues to accomplish this:

謂由猛利欲樂所得及由恆常精進所得。

(1) achieving it through fierce yearning, (2) achieving it through prolonged joyous perseverance,

由觀擇境得三摩地,名欲三摩地,進三摩地,觀三摩地。

(3) achieving concentration by discriminating examination of the object of meditation—these first three are called, respectively, yearning concentration, enthusiastic concentration, and analytical concentration—and

若心宿有三摩地種,依彼而得心一境性,名心三摩地。

(4) achieving one-pointedness of mind based on having in your mind seeds of earlier concentration; this is called mental concentration.

極下劣者謂太緩慢,太高擧者謂太策勵,義為離彼二邊而修。

"Very slack" refers to excessive relaxation, and "very elated" refers to excessive tightness. The point is that you should sustain a meditation which lacks these two.

- p.375 -

菩提道次第廣論卷十五終