菩提道次第廣論卷十六

第二依彼引生住心次第分三,一 正明引生住心次第,二 由六力成辦,三 具四種作意。  今初

2 The stages in which the mental states develop.
In this section there are three parts:
2.1 The actual stages in which the mental states develop
2.2 The process of achieving them with the six forces
2.3 How the four attentions are involved in this

◎初中九心。

2.1 The actual stages in which the mental states develop.
These are the nine mental states:

一內住者,謂從一切外所緣境攝錄其心,令其攀緣內所緣境,《莊嚴經論》云﹕「心住內所緣。」

1. Mental placement: This entails thoroughly withdrawing your attention from all outside objects and directing it inwardly to the object of meditation. Maitreya's 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》 states: "After you have directed your attention to the object of meditation...."

二續住者,謂初所繫心令不散亂,即於所緣相續而住,如云﹕「其流令不散。」

2. Continuous placement: Your attention that was initially directed to the object of meditation does not stray elsewhere, but is continuously set upon the object of meditation. The 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》: "Its continuity is not distracted."

三安住者,謂由忘念向外散時,速知散已,還復安置前所緣境,如云﹕「散亂速覺了,還安住所緣。」

3. Patched placement: If your attention is drawn away by forgetfulness and distracted outward, you recognize this and again fix it upon the object of meditation. The 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》: "Swiftly recognizing distraction, it is patched up again."

四近住者,修次初編說,前安住心是知散斷除,此近住心是散亂斷已,勵力令心住前所緣。

4. Close placement: Kamalaśīla's first Stages of Meditation comments that with the previous mental state you recognize distraction and eliminate it; with this mental state you have eliminated distraction and with effort place your attention upon the object of meditation.

《般若波羅蜜多教授論》說,從廣大境數攝其心,令性漸細上上而住,如云﹕「具慧上上轉,於內攝其心。」

Ratnākaraśānti's 《Instructions for the Perfection of Wisdom》 asserts that your attention, which is by nature expansive, is repeatedly drawn in and refined, establishing ever greater stability. This is in accord with the statement [from the 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》]: "The wise withdraw their attention inward to ever greater levels."

《聲聞地》說,「先應念住,不令其心於外散動。」謂起念力,令不忘念於外散動。

Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 explains that first mindfulness is applied, and your attention does not stray outside. As the force of mindfulness develops, forgetfulness does not create outward distraction.

五調伏者,謂由思惟正定功德,令於正定心生欣悅,如云﹕「次見功德故,於定心調伏。」《聲聞地》說,由色等五境及三毒男女隨一之相,令心散動,先應於彼取其過患,莫由十相令心流散。

5. Taming: Reflecting upon the advantages of concentration, you take delight in concentration. The 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》: "Then, because you see the advantages, your mind is tamed in concentration." The 《Śrāvaka Levels》 comments that if your mind is distracted by the signs of any of the five sensory objects of visual form and so on, of the three mental poisons [attachment, hostility, and ignorance], or of a man or a woman, you regard these ten signs as disadvantageous from the outset and do not let them scatter your mind.

六寂靜者,謂於散亂觀其過失,於三摩地止息不喜,如云﹕「觀散亂過故,止息不欣喜。」《聲聞地》說,由欲尋思等諸惡尋思,及貪欲蓋等諸隨煩惱能擾亂心,先應於
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彼取其過患,於諸尋思及隨煩惱不令流散。

6. Pacification: Regarding distraction as a fault, you quell any dislike for concentration. The 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》: "Because you see the faults of distraction, you quell dislike for the meditation." The 《Śrāvaka Levels》 asserts that if your attention is disturbed by thoughts such as those concerning sensory object and by secondary afflictions such as obstructions involving attraction to the sensory, you regard these from the beginning as disadvantageous, and do not allow your attention to be drawn to your thoughts and secondary afflictions.

七最極寂靜者,謂若生貪心憂慼昏沉睡眠等時,能極寂靜,如云﹕「貪心憂等起,應如是寂靜。」《聲聞地》說,由失念故,若起如前所說尋思及隨煩惱,隨生尋斷,能不忍受。

7. Complete pacification: This entails the fine Pacification of the occurrence of attachment, melancholy, lethargy, sleepiness, etc. The 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》: "As soon as attachment, melancholy, etc. arise, they are pacified." The 《Śrāvaka Levels》 says that if the thoughts and secondary afflictions mentioned earlier arise as a result of forgetfulness, you do not submit to all that appear, but eliminate them.

八專注一境者,為令任運轉故而正策勵,如云﹕「次勤律儀者,由心有作行,能得任運轉。」又如《聲聞地》云﹕「由有作行令無缺間,於三摩地相續而住,如是名為專注一趣。」第八心名專注一趣,即由此名易了其義。

8. One-pointed attention: This entails exerting effort so that you engage the object of meditation effortlessly. The 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》: "Then one endowed with restraint and enthusiasm applies remedies for the obstacles to his or her mind and naturally achieves the ninth mental state." This is to be understood from the statement in the 《Śrāvaka Levels》: "By means of application you have no hindrance, and, since you continuously establish a flow of concentration, you make a single channel." Another term applied to the eighth mental state is "single channeling," the meaning of which is easily understood.

九平等住者,修次中說,心平等時當修等捨。《般若波羅蜜多教授論》說,由修專注一趣,能得自在任運而轉。

9. Balanced placement: According to Kamalaśīla's 《Stages of Meditation》, this refers to the equanimity that occurs when your mind becomes balanced; Ratnākaraśānti's Instructions for the 《Perfection of Wisdom》says this refers to spontaneous, natural attention and the attainment of independence as a result of familiarity with single channeling.

如論云﹕「從修習不行,」《聲聞地》說名等持。

The 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》 states: "There is non-application due to familiarity with that." The 《Śrāvaka Levels》 says your mind is "concentrated,"

如云﹕「數修數習,數多修習為因緣故,得無功用任運轉道,由是因緣,不由加行不由功用,心三摩地任運相續,無散亂轉故名等持。」

and the meaning of this is clearly stated in the same text:
As a consequence of dedication, familiarization, and frequent practice, you reach the path of both spontaneous and natural attention. With no application and with spontaneity, your mind enters into a flow of concentration that is without distraction. In this way it is concentrated.

此中九心之名,是如修次初編所引,如云﹕「此奢摩他道,是從般若波羅蜜多等所說。」

The names of the nine mental states are in accord with the lines in Kamalaśīla's 《first Stages of Meditation》: "This path of meditative serenity is explained in the 《Perfection of Wisdom Sūtras》 and so on...."

◎第二由六力成辦。

2.2 The process of achieving them with the six forces

力有六種,一聽聞力,二思惟力,三憶念力,四正知力,五精進力,六串習力。

There are six forces: the force of hearing, the force of reflection, the force of mindfulness, the force of vigilance, the force of enthusiasm, and the force of thorough acquaintance.

此等能成何心者,

The method of accomplishing the mental states with these forces is as follows:

一由聽聞力成內住心,謂唯隨順從他所聞,於所緣境住心教授,最初令心安住內境,非自數思數修習故。

1. With the force of hearing, you accomplish mental placemen. The reason for this is that due to following the instructions that you have merely heard from someone else about focusing on the object of meditation, at first you simply fix your attention upon the object. But this is not a case of familiarity due to your own repeated reflection.

由思惟力成續住心,謂於所緣先所住心,由數思惟將護修習,初得少分相續住故。

2. With the force of reflection, you accomplish the mental state of continual placement; for, as a consequence of the practice of repeatedly reflecting on the continuation of the initial fixation of attention upon the object of meditation, for the first time you achieve the ability to maintain a little continuity.

由憶念力成辦安住近住二心,謂從所緣向外散時,憶先所
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緣於內攝錄,又從最初生憶念力,從所緣境不令散故。

3. With the force of mindfulness, you accomplish the mental states of patched placement and of close placement; for, in the case of patched placement, when your attention is distracted away from the object of meditation, you are mindful of the previous object of meditation and your attention is drawn back in; and in the case of close placement, you generate the power of mindfulness from the beginning, and this prevents your attention from being distracted away from the object of meditation.

由正知力成辦調伏寂靜二心,謂由正知了知諸相諸惡尋思及隨煩惱流散過患,令於彼等不流散故。

4. With the force of vigilance, you accomplish the mental states of taming and of pacification; for, with vigilance you recognize the faults of being scattered toward thoughts and the signs of the secondary afflictions, and by regarding them as faults, you do not let scattering toward these two occur.

由精進力成辦最極寂靜專注一趣,雖生微細諸惡尋思及隨煩惱,亦起功用斷滅不忍,由此因緣,其沉掉等不能障礙妙三摩地,定相續生。

5. With the force of enthusiasm, you accomplish the mental states of complete pacification and of one-pointed attention; for, by striving to eliminate even subtle thoughts and secondary afflictions, you do not submit to them; and by so doing, laxity, excitement, etc. are unable to interfere with your concentration, and you achieve continuous concentration.

由串習力成等住心,謂於前心極串習力,生無功用任運而轉三摩地故。

6. With the force of acquaintance, you accomplish the mental state of balanced placement; for, with the force of great familiarity with the above, you develop effortless, natural concentration.

此等是如聲聞地意,雖見餘處亦作餘說,然難憑信。

These accord exactly with the intended meaning of Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》; so, although there are alternative explanations, do not rely on them.

◎若得第九住心,譬如讀書至極串熟,最初發起欲誦之心,雖於中間心往餘散,然所讀誦任運不斷,

The achievement of the ninth mental state can be understood in terms of an analogy: In the case of those who are extremely familiar with reciting scriptures and so on, if the initial motivation to recite arises and they begin, even though their mind is occasionally distracted elsewhere, the recitation continues effortlessly, without interruption.

如是初念於所緣境,令心住已,次雖未能一類相續依念正知,然三摩地能無間缺長時流轉,

In a similar fashion, once your mind is settled with mindfulness fixed upon the object of meditation, even if you do not continually cultivate mindfulness and vigilance, your concentration is able to focus continually, for long periods of time, without being interrupted by scattering.

由其不須功用相續恆依念知,故名無加行或名無功用。

Since effort is not needed to maintain a continuous stream of mindfulness and vigilance, this is said to be without application, or effort.

能生此者,先須一類功用依念正知,令沉掉等諸障品法不能障礙,生三摩地經極長時,此即第八住心,

For that to arise, in an earlier phase of practice you continually and energetically cultivate mindfulness and vigilance. During that phase, it is necessary to produce a concentration that can be sustained throughout long meditation sessions, without its being able to be disturbed by such hindrances as laxity and excitement. This is the eighth mental state.

此與第九雖沉掉等三摩地障,不能為障,二心相同。

This and the ninth state are similar in that they cannot be hindered by factors such as laxity and excitement that are incompatible with concentration.

然於此心必須無間依念正知,故名有行或有功用。

However, in this eighth state, you must uninterruptedly cultivate mindfulness and vigilance, so it is said to be associated with application, or effort.

能生此者,須於微細沉掉等法,隨生隨除而不忍受,故須第七心。

For this to arise, you must stop even subtle laxity, excitement, etc. as soon as they occur, without submitting to them; so the seventh mental state is necessary.

生第七心,須先了知諸惡尋思及隨煩惱散亂過患,由有力正知於彼等上觀察令不流散,故須第五及第六心,此二即是有力正知所成辦故。

For this to arise, you must recognize that the distraction of thoughts and the Secondary afflictions is a disadvantage, and you must have intense vigilance that monitors your attention so that it does not disperse to them. So the fifth and sixth mental states are necessary, for those two are accomplished with the strengthening of vigilance.

能生此者,須於散失所緣境時,速憶所緣及須最初從所
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緣境念不令散,故須第三及第四心,以此二心即彼二念所成辦故。

Furthermore, for such mental states to arise, you must have mindfulness that swiftly recalls the object of meditation when you are distracted from it, and mindfulness that prevents distraction from the object of meditation from the very outset. So the third and fourth mental states are necessary, for you accomplish these two with those two kinds of mindfulness.

又生此者,須先令心安住所緣及令住已相續不散,故應先生初二種心。

For this to arise, your attention must first of all be fixed upon the object of meditation, and you must have an undistracted continuity of this fixation. So the first two mental states arise before the others.

◎如是總謂,先應隨逐所聞教授,善令心住。

Therefore, in summary, first of all follow the personal instructions that you have heard, and correctly apply the method for setting your attention in a balanced fashion.

次如所住數數思惟,令略相續將護流轉。

Then repeatedly reflect on the way of setting your attention, and as you are able to bring together a little continuity, sustain a continuous stream of attention.

次若失念心散亂時速應攝錄,忘所緣境速應憶念,次更生起有力正念,於所緣境初不令散。

Then if your mindfulness declines and you become distracted, swiftly draw your attention back in and quickly become mindful that you have forgotten the object of meditation. Then generate powerful mindfulness and bring forth the force of mindfulness that prevents distraction away from the object of meditation from the outset.

若已成辦有力憶念,又當生起猛利正知,觀沉掉等能從所緣散亂過失。

By accomplishing forceful mindfulness and by seeing the faults of laxity, excitement, etc., which distract the attention away from the object of meditation, develop intense vigilance to monitor your attention.

次當起功用力,雖由微細失念而散,亦能無間了知斷截。既斷除已,令諸障品不能為障,定漸延長。

Then when you are distracted by even subtle forgetfulness, recognize this immediately and stop it short; and upon eliminating it, generate the power of effort to lengthen the flow of attention that is uninterrupted by hindrances.

若生此心策勵修習得修自在,即能成辦第九住心,無諸功用勝三摩地。

Once that has arisen, you master familiarity by meditating with effort, and you accomplish the ninth mental state, in which your concentration becomes effortless.

是故未得第九心前,修瑜伽師須施功用,於三摩地安住其心,得九心已雖不特於住心功用,然心亦能任運入定。

Therefore, until yogis attain the ninth mental state, they must exert effort to apply their minds to concentration; but upon attaining the ninth mental state, even if they expend no effort for the purpose of settling the mind in meditative equipoise, their minds automatically become concentrated.

雖得如是第九住心,若未得輕安,如下所說尚不立為得奢摩他,何況能得毘缽舍那。

Even in the case that this ninth mental state is attained, if pliancy is not achieved, then—as will be explained later—if you are not even defined as attaining meditative serenity, how much less are you defined as achieving insight.

然得此定,有無分別安樂光明而嚴飾者,誤為已生根本後得共相合糅無分別智。

Nevertheless, there are those who assert that when you achieve such concentration that is adorned with bliss, clarity, and non-discursive awareness, you have brought forth a non-discursive, sublime wisdom that integrates meditative equipoise and the post-equipoise state.

尤有眾多於《聲聞地》所說第九住心,誤為已生無上瑜伽之圓滿次第者,下當廣說。

Further, as will be discussed later on, there are a great many people who specifically confuse this ninth mental state described in Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 with the culmination of the stage of completion in highest yoga tantra.

◎第三具四種作意。

2.3 How the four attentions are involved in this.

如《聲聞地》云﹕「即於如是九種心住,當知復有四種作意,一力勵運轉,二有間缺運轉,

The 《Śrāvaka Levels》 states:
With respect to these nine mental states, know that there are four types of attention: (1) tight focus, (2) intermittent focus,

三無間缺運轉,四無功用運轉,

(3) uninterrupted focus, and (4) spontaneous focus.

於內住等住中,有力勵運轉作意,於安住
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近住調伏寂靜最極寂靜中,有有間缺運轉作意,於專注一趣中有無間缺運轉作意,於等持中,有無功用運轉作意。」

Now in the first two mental states of mental placement and correct mental placement [i.e., continuous placement], there is the attention of tight focus. In the next five mental states of withdrawn mental placement [i.e., patched placement], close placement, taming, pacification, and complete pacification, there is the attention of intermittent focus. In the eighth mental state of single channeling [i.e., one-pointed attention], there is the attention of uninterrupted focus. In the ninth state of concentrated awareness [i.e., balanced placement, there is the attention of effortless [i.e., spontaneous] focus.

此說初二心時,須勤策勵,故有力勵運轉作意。

During the first two mental states the attention must be strenously tight, so this is tight focus.

次五心時,由昏沉掉擧故,中有間缺不能久修,故有有間缺運轉作意。

Then during the phases of the next five mental states there is interference by laxity and excitement and you are unable to maintain long meditation sessions; so this is intermittent focus.

第八心時,昏沉掉舉不能為障,能長時修,故有無間缺運轉作意。

Then since in the eighth mental state you are able to sustain long meditation sessions without interference by laxity and excitement, there is uninterrupted focus.

第九心時即無間缺,又不恆常勤依功用,故有無功用運轉作意。

Then since in the ninth mental state there are no interruptions and no need for continuous exertion, you apply the attention of effortless focus.

◎若爾初二心時,亦有有間缺運轉,中五心時亦須力勵,云何初二不說有間缺運轉作意,於中五心不說力勵運轉作意。

Qualm: In this case, during the first two mental states there is interrupted focus, and during the intermediate five mental states there is a need for tight focus; so why does one not speak of the attention of interrupted focus for the first two, and of the attention of tight focus for the intermediate five mental states?

答,初二心中心入不入定,後者極長,中間五心住定時長,故於後者就三摩地障礙立名,前者不爾。

Reply: In the first two mental states there are occasions when your mind is and is not concentrated, with considerably longer periods in the latter state; whereas in the intermediate five states the duration of concentration is much longer, so the designation of "interruption to concentration" is used for the latter and not for the former.

故雖俱有力勵運轉,然間缺運轉有無不同,故於力勵運轉作意,未說中間五心。

Therefore, although those two sets of mental states are similar in terms of the presence of tight focus, they are dissimilar in terms of the presence and absence of interrupted focus; so the five mental states are not included in the attention of tight focus.

如是住前所說資糧,恆依精進修三摩地,乃能成辦正奢摩他。

Thus, after you have established yourself in the preconditions explained earlier, you will achieve serenity if you cultivate continual joyous perseverance for accomplishing concentration.

若略修習一次二次,還復棄捨所修加行,必不能成,

But if after you practice this only a few times you discard the practice again, it is said that you will not accomplish serenity.

如《攝波羅蜜多論》云﹕「由無間瑜伽,精勤修靜慮,如數數休息,鑽木不出火,瑜伽亦如是,未得勝勿捨。」

Thus Aryasūra's 《Compendium of the Perfections》 states:
With constant yoga
Strive to accomplish meditative stabilization.
If you repeatedly slack off,
Fire will not arise from friction.
Likewise, do not stop striving at the method of yoga,
Until you reach a special state.

由修成辦奢摩他量分三,一 顯示奢摩他成與未成之界限,二 顯示依奢摩他趣總道軌,三 顯示別趣世間道軌。
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3 The measure of successful cultivation of serenity
Here there are three sections:
3.1. A presentation of the dividing line between accomplishing and not accomplishing meditative serenity
3.2. A general presentation of the way to proceed along the path on the basis of meditative serenity
3.3. A specific presentation of the way to proceed along the mundane path.

初又分二,一 顯示正義,二 有作意相及斷疑。

A presentation of the dividing line between accomplishing and not accomplishing meditative serenity
This has two sections:
3.1.1 a presentation of the actual meaning and
3.1.2 the marks associated with attention, and the elimination of qualms.

今初

3.1.1 a presentation of the actual meaning

◎若善了知如前所說修定之軌而正修習,則九住心如次得生。第九心時,能盡遠離微細沉掉,長時修習,此又不待策勵功用,相續依止正念正知,而三摩地能任運轉,是否已得奢摩他耶。

Qualm: Once you have properly understood the means of cultivating concentration as explained previously and then sustained them in meditation, the nine mental states arise in sequence; and in the ninth state you are able to meditate for long sessions free of subtle laxity and excitement. Given that you have then achieved a concentration that becomes focused spontaneously without resorting to the effort of continual cultivation of mindfulness and vigilance, have you achieved meditative serenity or not?

茲當解釋,得此定者,有得未得輕安二類。若未得輕安,是奢摩他隨順,非真奢摩他,名奢摩他隨順作意,

Reply: I shall explain. In the achievement of this concentration there are those who do and those who do not achieve pliancy. So if pliancy is not achieved, this would be an approximation of meditative Serenity, but would not be genuine serenity. Thus it is called an attention that approximates meditative serenity.

如《解深密經》云﹕「世尊,若諸菩薩緣心為境內思惟心,乃至未得身心輕安,於此中間所有作意,當名何等。慈氏,非奢摩他,是名隨順奢摩他勝解相應作意。」

This is clearly stated in the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》:
Bhagavan, when bodhisattvas direct their attention inward and focus it upon their minds, what is this attention called for as long as physical pliancy and mental pliancy are not achieved? Maitreya, this is not meditative serenity. You should say that it is associated with an aspiration that approximates meditative serenity.

《莊嚴經論》云﹕「由習無作行,次獲得圓滿,身心妙輕安,名為有作意。」

Maitreya's 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》 also states:
As a consequence of familiarity, there is non-application.
Then upon achieving great pliancy
Of the body and mind,
You are said to have attention.

此說作意即奢摩他,聲聞地文至下當說。

In this instance, attention refers to meditative serenity, as will be explained below in a citation from Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》.

《修次中編》云﹕「如是修習奢摩他者,若時生起身心輕安,如其所欲,心於所緣獲得自在,應知爾時生奢摩他。」此說須具二事,謂於所緣得自在住及發輕安,

Furthermore, Kamalaśīla's 《second Stages of Meditation》states that you must achieve both pliancy and the freedom to stabilize on the object of meditation:
For you who have cultivated meditative serenity in this way, when your body and mind become pliant and you have mastery over your mind in directing it as you wish, at that time know that you have accomplished serenity.

故修次初編說,「若時於所緣境不用加行,乃至如欲心任運轉,爾時應知是奢摩他圓滿。」

Thus Kamalaśīla's 《first Stages of Meditation》 states:
When your attention is focused on the object of meditation for as long as you wish, without resort to an antidote, know that you have perfected serenity.

意在已得輕安,《修次中編》顯了說故。

The 《second Stages of Meditation》 clearly indicates that the above citation also refers to the presence of pliancy.

又《辨中邊論》說,八斷行中之捨與此第九心同一宗要,但此非足,彼論亦說須輕安故。

Furthermore, the equanimity explained in Maitreya's 《Separation of the Middle from the Extremes》 among the eight antidotes has the same meaning as the ninth mental state referred to here. It states that this alone does not suffice and you need pliancy as well.

《般若波羅蜜多教授論》云﹕「如是菩薩獨處空閒,如所思義作意思惟,捨離意言,於心所現多數思惟,乃至未生身心輕安,是奢摩他隨順作意,若時生起,爾時即是正奢摩他。」

Ratnākaraśānti's 《Instructions for the Perfection of Wisdom》 very clearly states:
The bodhisattvas, dwelling alone in solitary places, direct their attention to their intended object. Freeing themselves of mental conversation, they frequently direct their attention to the mental image. Until physical and mental pliancy arise, this is an attention that approximates serenity; but when they do arise, it is serenity.

此說極顯,此等一切皆是《决擇深密經》義。

All these citations also establish the meaning of the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》.

- p.381 -

◎若爾未生輕安以前,此三摩地何地攝耶?

Question: Well then, which of the nine levels incorporates the concentration in which pliancy has not yet arisen?

答,此三摩地欲界地攝,三界九地隨一所攝,而非第一靜慮近分以上定故。

Reply. This concentration is included in the level of the desire realm. This is because it is included in one of the nine levels of the three realms, and it is not at or above access to the first meditative stabilization.

又得近分,決定已得奢摩他故。

To achieve this access, it is certainly necessary to achieve serenity.

於欲地中雖有如此勝三摩地,然仍說是非等引地,而不立為等引地者,以非無悔歡喜妙樂輕安所引故。

Although there is such concentration without pliancy in the level of the desire realm, it is a concentration that is a level without meditative equipoise. The reason why it is not presented as a level of equipoise is that it is not accomplished with lack of regret, supreme delight and bliss, and with pliancy.

如本地分云﹕「何故唯於此等名等引地,非於欲界心一境性,謂此等定,是由無悔歡喜輕安妙樂所引,欲界不爾,非欲界中於法全無審正觀察。」

This is stated in Asanga's 《Levels of Yogic Deeds》:
Why is it that this concentration alone is called the level of meditative equipoise, and one-pointedness of the desire realm is not? Here is the reason: this concentration is accomplished with lack of regret, supreme delight, pliancy, and bliss. The concentration which functions in the desire realm is not like the concentration that does not function there, but it is not the case that in the desire realm there is no concentration on a correct phenomenon.

由是因緣未得輕安,雖三摩地不須一類依止正念,能無分別心任運轉,復能合糅行住坐臥一切威儀,然是欲界心一境性,應當了知不能立為真奢摩他。

Thus, without having achieved pliancy, even when mindfulness is not continually maintained, your mind can automatically become non-discursive, and you can integrate this with all activities of moving, walking, lying down, and sitting. This approximation of concentration is called a one-pointed mind of the desire realm, but understand that it is not fit to be presented as genuine meditative serenity.

◎若爾云何能得輕安,得輕安已云何而能成奢摩他。

Question: Well then, what are the means of achieving pliancy, and upon achieving it, how does it lead to serenity?

答﹕應知輕安如《集論》云﹕「云何輕安,謂止息身心粗重,身心堪能性,除遣一切障碍為業。」

Reply: Pliancy is to be understood in accordance with the explanation in Asanga's 《Compendium of Knowledge》:
What is pliancy? It is a serviceability of the body and mind due to the cessation of the continuum of physical and mental dysfunctions, and it has the function of dispelling all obstructions

身心粗重者,謂其身心,於修善行,無有堪能隨所欲轉,

Physical and mental dysfunctions are the unfitness of your body and mind for being employed to cultivate virtue at will.

能對治此身心輕安者,由離身心二種粗重,則其身心於善事轉極有堪能。

Their remedies, physical and mental pliancy, entail great serviceability in terms of applying your body and mind to wholesome actions, for you are free of dysfunctions of both the body and the mind.

又能障碍樂斷煩惱,煩惱品攝內身粗重。

Moreover, physical dysfunction, which is included in the category of afflictions, interferes with your delight in eliminating afflictions.

若勤功用斷煩惱時,其身重等不堪能性,皆得遣除,身獲輕利,名身堪能。

When you try to eliminate your afflictions, your body becomes unserviceable with a sense of heaviness and so on. Once you are free of this, your body becomes buoyant and light; this is a serviceable body.

如是能障樂斷煩惱,煩惱品攝內心粗重,

Likewise, mental dysfunction, which is included in the category of afflictions, interferes with your delight in eliminating afflictions.

若勤功用斷煩惱時,愛樂運轉攀緣善境,不堪能性皆得遣除,心於所緣運轉無滯,名心堪能。

When you try to eliminate your afflictions, you cannot experience pleasure in focusing on a virtuous object. Once you are free of this, your mind focuses on the object of meditation without resistance. This is a serviceable mind.

如安慧論師云﹕
- p.382 -
「身堪能者,謂於身所作事輕利生起。

Thus the master Sthiramati states [in 《Explanation of the "Thirty Stanzas"》: 「The serviceability of the body is that from which lightness and buoyancy arise in your physical actions.

心堪能者,謂趣正思惟,令心適悅輕利之因心所有法,

The serviceability of the mind is the cause of the cheerfulness and lightness of the mind in engaging in perfect attention.

由此相應於所緣境無滯運轉,是故名為心堪能性。」

If you are endowed with this transformed quality that arises from your mind, you focus on the object of meditation without resistance. Therefore, this is called the serviceability of the mind.」

總略應知,若得輕安,於斷煩惱起功用欲,如行難行,恆常畏怯身心難轉不堪能性皆得遣除,身心最極調柔隨轉。

In short, due to the unserviceability of the body and mind, even when you want to strive to eliminate afflictions, you do so arduously and with distaste, like someone unable to engage in work. When pliancy is achieved, this tendency stops, and your body and mind become very easy to employ.

如是身心圓滿堪能,是從初得三摩地時,便有微劣少分現起,次漸增長,至於最後而成輕安,心一境性妙奢摩他。

Such complete physical and mental serviceability arises to a slight degree from the time that you start to cultivate concentration. This gradually increases until it finally turns into pliancy and one-pointed meditative serenity.

又初微時難可覺了,後乃易知,如《聲聞地》云﹕「先發如是正加行時,若心輕安若身輕安,身心調柔微細而轉,難可覺了。」

At first this is difficult to recognize due to its subtlety, but later on it becomes easy to recognize. Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 states:
At the very beginning when you begin the correct training, the occurrence of mental and physical pliancy and mental and physical serviceability is subtle and difficult to discern.

又云﹕「即前所有心一境性,身心輕安漸更增長,由此因果輾轉道理,而能引發強盛易了心一境性身心輕安。」

And:
As that one-pointed mind and mental and physical pliancy increase, in the manner of a chain reaction, they lead to a one-pointed mind and mental and physical pliancy that are obvious and easy to discern.

將發如是眾相圓滿易了輕安,所有前相,謂勤修定補特伽羅,於其頂上似重而起,然其重相非不安樂。此生無間,即能遠離障碍樂斷諸煩惱品心粗重性,即先生起能對治彼心輕安性。

The portent of the occurrence of easily discernible, perfected pliancy is this: persons who are striving to cultivate concentration experience a sense of heaviness and numbness of the brain, but it is not an unpleasant heaviness. As soon as this occurs, they are freed of the mental dysfunction that obstructs their delight in eliminating afflictions, and mental pliancy, which is the remedy for this dysfunction, arises for the first time.

如《聲聞地》云﹕「若於爾時不久當起強盛易了心一境性身心輕安,所有前相,於其頂上似重而起非損惱相,此起無間能障樂斷諸煩惱品心粗重性皆得除滅,能對治彼心調柔性心輕安性皆得生起。」

The 《Śrāvaka Levels》 states:
The portent of the proximate occurrence of obvious, easily discernible one-pointedness of mind and mental and physical pliancy is a sensation of the brain becoming heavy; but this is not a harmful characteristic. As soon as this happens, you eliminate the mental dysfunction that belongs to the category of afflictions and that obstructs your delight in eliminating afflictions; and the mental serviceability and mental pliancy which are the remedy for this dysfunction arise.

次依內心調柔輕安生起力故,有能引發身輕安因風入身中,由此風大徧全身分,身粗重性皆得遠離,諸能對治身粗重性,身輕安性即能生起。

Then due to the power of the arising of the pliancy that makes your mind serviceable, an energy that is a cause for physical pliancy courses through your body. Once this energy has pervasively coursed throughout the parts of your body, you are freed of physical dysfunction, and physical pliancy, which is the remedy for physical dysfunction, arises.

此亦由其調柔風力,徧一切身
- p.383 -
狀似滿溢。

Once this saturates the entire body, there is an experience of being as if filled with the power of this serviceable energy.

如《聲聞地》云,「由此生故有能隨順起身輕安,諸風大種來入身中,由此大種於身轉時,能障樂斷諸煩惱品身粗重性,皆得遣除。能對治彼身輕安性,徧滿身中狀如滿溢。」

The 《Śrāvaka Levels》 states: Due to its [spliancy's] occurrence, energy-wind—included among the great elements—that is conducive to the arising of physical pliancy courses through the body. When it flows, you are freed of the physical dysfunction that belongs to the category of afflictions and that obstructs your delight in eliminating afflictions; and physical pliancy, the remedy for this affliction, saturates the entire body, so that it seems as if you are filled with this energy.

此身輕安謂極悅意內身觸塵,非心所法,

Now, physical pliancy is a very pleasant sensation within the body, not a mental process.

如安慧論師云﹕「歡喜攝持身內妙觸,應當了知是身輕安。契經中說,意歡喜時身輕安故。」

As the master Sthiramati states, citing sūtra: If a distinctive physical sensation is qualified by delight, recognize this to be physical pliancy. If your mind is delighted, your body becomes pliant.

此身輕安最初生時,由風力故身中現起最極安樂,由此因緣心中喜樂轉更勝妙,

Thus, when physical pliancy initially occurs, due to the power of energy there arises a great sense of well-being in your body, and on this basis there also arises in your mind a most exceptional experience of that pleasure.

輕安初勢漸趣微細,然非輕安一切永盡,

Thereafter, the force of this initial occurrence of pliancy gradually subsides, but this is not a case of pliancy becoming exhausted.

是初強盛太動其心,彼漸退已,如影隨形有妙輕安無諸散動與三摩地隨順而起。

Rather, this pliancy is coarse and excessively agitates your mind; so with its disappearance, there occurs a pliancy, tenuous like a shadow, that is compatible with steady concentration.

心踊躍性亦漸退減,心於所緣堅固而住,遠離喜動不寂靜性乃為獲得正奢摩他。

Once the rapturous delight of your mind has disappeared, your mind stabilizes firmly upon the object of meditation, and you achieve meditative serenity, which is free of the turbulence caused by great delight.

《聲聞地》云﹕「彼初起時,令心踊躍令心悅豫,歡喜俱行令心喜樂,所緣境界於心中現,從此已後彼初所起輕安勢力漸漸舒緩,有妙輕安隨身而轉,心踊躍性漸次退減,由奢摩他所攝持故,心於所緣相寂靜轉。」

The 《Śrāvaka Levels》 states: When this first arises, you experience delight, a great sense of bliss, attention to unsurpassed delight, and manifest delight. Following this, the force of pliancy that first arose slowly becomes very refined, and your body becomes endowed with shadow-like pliancy. You eliminate delight, your mind becomes stabilized with meditative serenity, and you focus on the object of meditation with exceptional serenity.

如是生已,或名得奢摩他,或名有作意,始得墮在有作意數。以得第一靜慮近分所攝正奢摩他,乃得定地最下作意故。

Once such things happen, "You are said to have attention", you achieve serenity and you are included among the ranks of "those who have achieved attention." For, by achieving serenity which is included in the access to the first stabilization, you achieve the smallest type of attention on the level of meditative equipoise.

如《聲聞地》云﹕「從是已後,其初發業修瑜伽師名有作意,始得墮在有作意數。何以故,由此最初獲得色界定地所攝少作意故,由此因緣名有作意。」

This accords with the statement in the 《Śrāvaka Levels》: Thereafter, the novice yogi is endowed with attention and is included in the ranks of those who are called "attentive." Why? Because this person has achieved the Small type of attention on the level of meditative equipoise that first experiences the form realm. Therefore, this person is called "attentive."

言定地者,是上二界地之異名。

The level of meditative equipoise is a synonym for the level of the two higher realms [the form and formless realms].

- p.384 -

◎第二分二。

3.1.2 the marks associated with attention, and the elimination of qualms.

初有作意相,具何相狀能令自他了知是為已得作意,謂由獲得如是作意,

(a) the marks associated with attention
These are the marks and signs to be known by yourself and others as "the criteria for having achieved attention." You who have achieved such attention have these marks:

則得色地所攝少分定心,身心輕安心一境性,

1. The achievement in small measure of these four: your mind belongs to the level of form, physical pliancy, mental pliancy, and one-pointedness of mind.

有力能修粗靜相道,或諦相道淨治煩惱,

2. The ability to purify afflictions either by means of the path bearing the aspects of calmness and coarseness, or the path bearing the aspects of the truths.

內暫持心身心輕安疾疾生起。

3. Once your mind is established inwardly, meditative equipoise and physical and mental pliancy arise ever so swiftly.

欲等五蓋多不現行,

4. For the most part, the five obstructions, such as sensual desire, do not occur.

從定起時亦有少分身心輕安隨順而轉。

5. When you rise from meditative equipoise, you still possess physical and mental pliancy to some extent.

如《聲聞地》云﹕「得此作意初修業者,有是相狀,謂已得色界少分定心,已得少分身心輕安心一境性,有力有能善修淨惑所緣加行,其心相續滋潤而轉,為奢摩他之所攝護。」

Thus the 《Śrāvaka Levels》 says:
These are the marks of a novice who is endowed with attention: You achieve the small degree of a mind that experiences the form realm, physical pliancy, mental pliancy, and the small degree of one-pointedness of mind. You have the opportunity and ability to practice with objects of meditation that purify afflictions. Your mind-stream becomes smooth, and you are enveloped by meditative serenity.

又云﹕「於內正住暫持其心,身心輕安疾疾生起,不極為諸身粗重性之所逼惱,不極數起諸蓋現行。」

And:
When your mind is perfectly drawn inward, settled and focused, mental and physical pliancy occur ever so swiftly; you are not afflicted by physical dysfunction, and for the most part the obstructions do not operate.

又云﹕「雖從定起出外經行,而有少分輕安餘勢隨身心轉。如是等類,當知是名有作意者清淨相狀。」

And:
Even when you rise from meditation and move about, you still have a certain degree of physical and mental pliancy. Recognize such experiences to be purified characteristics and signs of possessing attention.

由得具足如是相狀作意力故,奢摩他道極易清淨,

After you have achieved attention bearing such characteristics, it is very easy for the path of serenity to be thoroughly purified as follows:

謂由奢摩他心一境性住定之後,速能引起身心輕安。輕安轉增,如彼輕安增長之量,便增爾許心一境性妙奢摩他,互相輾轉能增長故。

After you have achieved equipoise in meditative serenity in which your mind is one-pointed, you are swiftly able to induce physical and mental pliancy so that pliancy increases. Commensurate with the increase of pliancy, one-pointed serenity increases, so that they mutually enhance each other.

如《聲聞地》云﹕「如如增長身心輕安,如是如是於所緣境心一境性,轉得增長。如如增長心一境性,如是如是轉復增長身心輕安。心一境性及以輕安,如是二法輾轉相依輾轉相屬。」

The 《Śrāvaka Levels》:
「Just as your physical and mental pliancy increase, so does your mental one-pointedness upon the object of meditation increase; and just as your mental one-pointedness increases, so does your physical and mental pliancy increase. These two phenomena—mental one-pointedness and pliancy—are based upon each other and are dependent upon each other.」

總之若心得堪能者,風心同轉,故風亦堪能,

In summary, when your mind is serviceable, energy and mind focus as one, so the energy becomes serviceable.

爾時其身,便起微妙殊勝輕安。

At that time, an extraordinary physical pliancy occurs,

此若生起,心上便生勝三摩地,

and when this happens, exceptional concentration arises in your mind.

復由此故,其風成辦殊勝堪能,故能引發身
- p.385 -
心輕安,仍如前說。

This, in turn, brings forth an exceptionally serviceable energy. Therefore, the process of physical and mental pliancy is as explained above.

◎第二斷疑者。

(b) The elimination of qualms is as follows.

如是前說第九心時,不須策勵勤加功用,心任運轉趣三摩地無諸分別,又盡滅除微細沈沒,具明顯力。

Qualm: Accordingly, it is said of the non-discursive ninth mental state that even without continual effort at mindfulness and vigilance, your mind becomes concentrated. Moreover, you are endowed with an intensity of clarity that prevents even subtle laxity.

又如前身輕安時說,由其風大堪能力故,能與身心勝妙安樂。

And, as in the earlier presentation of physical pliancy, there is concentration that yields outstanding well-being in your body and mind and mind due to the power of serviceable energy.

此三摩地又如前於相狀時說,貪欲等蓋諸隨煩惱多不現行,雖從定起不離輕安。

As explained in the above section on the marks associated with attention, for the most part there is no movement of the secondary afflictions of sensual desire and so on; and even when you rise from meditative equipoise, you have the quality of not being parted from pliancy.

若生具此功德之定,於五道中立為何道。

In terms of the five paths, where does this occur?

答,若生如是妙三摩地,昔及現在總有多人立為入大乘道,

Reply: In the past as well as the present there have been a great number of people who assert that when such concentration arises it is generally to be placed on the Mahãyãna path.

尤由隨順生輕安風,一切身中安樂充滿,依此身心起大調適。

Specifically, they they assert this as a contemplation in which the characteristics of the completion stage of the highest yoga tantra are perfected.

此又具足無諸分別最極明顯二種殊勝,故許為無上瑜伽中備諸德相圓滿次第微妙瑜伽。

They draw this conclusion upon noting the occurrence of a great experience of bliss in the body and mind, based on a feeling as if one's entire body were filled with ecstasy due to the energy corresponding to the arising of pliancy, as well the attributes of non-discursive awareness and great clarity.

然依慈尊無著等諸大教典及中觀修次等,明顯開示修定次第,定量諸論而觀察之,此三摩地尚未能入小乘之道,何況大乘。

However, when this is analyzed on the basis of the classic texts of the venerable Maitreya, the noble Asanga, and so on, and the authoritative texts, such as the Mādhyamaka 《Stages of Meditation》, that clearly set forth the stages of concentration, it is not possible to place this kind of concentration even on the Hinayāna path, let alone the Mahāyāna.

《聲聞地》說,即修根本第一靜慮觀粗靜相諸世間道,皆依此定而引發故。

For the 《Śrāvaka Levels》 states that even the mundane paths which look to the aspects of calmness and coarseness for accomplishing the actual first stabilization are accomplished on the basis of this concentration.

外道諸仙由世間道,於無所有以下諸地能離欲者,皆須依此而趣上地。故此定是內外道二所共同。

Therefore, non-Buddhist sages, who, by means of mundane paths, free themselves from attachment to the level of Nothingness and lower levels, must proceed to higher paths on the basis of this concentration. So this is a concentration common to both non-Buddhists and Buddhists.

是或無顛倒達無我見及善覺了三有過失,厭離生死希求解脫,由出離心所攝持者,是解脫道。

Furthermore, if this concentration is imbued with the view that correctly knows selflessness and with the attitude of the determination to be free which properly ascertains the faults of the whole of cyclic existence, is repelled by the cycle of existence, and diligently strives for liberation, it turns into the path to liberation.

若菩提心之所攝持,亦能轉成大乘之道。

If it is imbued with the precious spirit of enlightenment, it turns into the Mahāyāna path.

如與畜生一搏之食,所行布施及護一戒,若由彼二意樂攝持,如其次第,便成解脫及一切智道之資糧。

For example, if the generosity of giving a single morsel of food to an animal and observing even one type of ethical discipline are imbued with these attitudes, they turn into the collection of merit on the paths to liberation and omniscience respectively.

然今非觀察,由餘道攝
- p.386 -
持趣與不趣能證解脫及一切種智道,是就此定自性觀察為趣何道。

Nevertheless, in the case of this question you do not investigate whether it becomes a path of liberation and omniscience in terms of its being imbued with other paths; rather you investigate which very nature of the concentration itself.

又中觀師與唯識師決擇毘缽舍那所觀境時,雖有不同,然總明止觀及於相續生彼證德全無不合。

Although there are inconsistencies between the Mādhyamaka and Cittamatrin ways of establishing the object of the view of insight, in general there are no inconsistencies in their identifications of serenity and insight or in the way they develop knowledge of these in their mind-streams.

故無著菩薩,於菩薩地及攝决擇分集論聲聞地中別分止觀二中,若修止者說由九心次第引發。

Therefore, the noble Asanga states in his 《Bodhisattva Levels》, 《Compendium of Determinations》, 《Compendium of Knowledge》, and 《Sravaka Levels》 that within the context of the individual practices of serenity and insight, when serenity is accomplished, it is accomplished through the stages of the nine mental states.

此復於聲聞地決擇最廣,然不許彼定,即是修毘缽舍那法。

Moreover, since this is elaborately set forth in the 《Śrāvaka Levels》, these nine concentrations are not asserted as the means for accomplishing insight

故諸論中離九住心,別說修毘缽舍那法,聲聞地亦別說修觀法故。

—in those treatises insight is explained separately from the nine mental states, and the means of accomplishing it are also explained separately in Asafiga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》.

如是《中觀修次》及《般若波羅蜜多教授論》等,亦以九心為奢摩他道,別說毘缽舍那道。

Similarly, the Mādhyamaka's 《Stages of Meditation》 texts and Ratnākaraśānti's 《Instructions for the Perfection of Wisdom》 also separately discuss the path of serenity consisting of nine mental states and the path of insight.

慈氏五論所說諸義,除無著菩薩所解之外更無所餘。故於此事,一切大轍同一意趣。

There are also no discrepancies between the statements in the teachings of Maitreya and the commentaries by Asanga, so all the great trailblazers are of one mind in this regard.

◎若謂聲聞地所說者,雖有安樂明顯,然無甚深無分別相,唯是寂止,若有無分別即空三摩地。所言甚深無分別者,深義云何,

Qualm: Although bliss and clarity are present in the concentration which is explained in the 《Śrāvaka Levels》, it is mere serenity since there is no profound non-discursiveness awareness. But if non-discursive awareness is present, it becomes concentration on emptiness.

為由觀慧正見決定,次於其上無分別住耶,抑不思擇無分別住耶。

Reply: By "concentration on emptiness" are you referring to investigating the meaning of "profound" in the phrase "profound non-discursive awareness" by using your discerning wisdom to establish this definitively in theory and then focusing on this without discursiveness? Or are you referring simply to settling in non-discursive awareness and not analyzing anything?

初者吾等亦許如此即是空三摩地。若汝許此,則應分別有無實性見解二類,若有彼見補特伽羅,次住見上修無分別,是修甚深空三摩地。

In the first case I also assert such a practice to be concentration on emptiness. If you assert likewise, there is a distinction between those who have and those who do not have an understanding of the view of the way things are. Those individuals who have the view and sustain a nondiscursive awareness upon settling in this view are practicing the profound concentration on emptiness.

若無彼見補特伽羅,唯不分別而修,則非修習甚深空性。

The meditation of those who lack an understanding of this view and meditate by not thinking about anything is not profound meditation on emptiness.

理應如是分別宣說,不應宣說凡無思惟一切癡修皆是無緣,或於無相或於空性修靜慮師。

It is valid to claim this distinction. Do not declare that all types of meditation in which you do not think about anything are meditative stabilization on the objectless, or on the signless, or on emptiness.

若謂無論有無了悟空性正見,但若心無分別,全不思擇,
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一切止修皆是空定,

Qualm: Regardless of whether or not you have the view that comprehends emptiness, all meditation in which your mind is focused on not thinking about anything and on not analyzing anything is concentration on emptiness.

則前所引《聲聞地》說奢摩他品諸三摩地,雖非所欲亦應許為空三摩地,由彼定時除念正知勢力微時,略起觀察。餘時全不略起分別,謂此是此非,故諸能引正奢摩他妙三摩地。

Reply: In that case you would be forced to assert that even the concentrations along the way to meditative serenity, mentioned previously in passages from Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 are concentrations on emptiness. For in those, too, when settled in concentration—apart from a few occasions of monitoring and so on when the strength of mindfulness and vigilance has decreased—you sustain the meditation without the slightest discursive thought of "this is this" or "this is not this."

《解深密經》說緣無分別影像,

Therefore, the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》 says that the concentrations for achieving serenity attend to an image that is without discursive thought.

《聲聞地》亦云﹕「彼於爾時成無分別影像所緣,即於如是所緣影像,一向一趣安住正念,不復觀察,不復思擇,不極思擇,不徧尋思,不徧伺察。」止觀二中於奢摩他,作是說故。

Furthermore, within the context of serenity and insight, Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 refers to serenity in this way:
At that time, this [concentration] attends to an image without discursive thought, and it exclusively focuses mindfulness one-pointedly upon the object. It does not examine it, nor classify it, for investigate it, nor ponder it, nor analyze it.

聲聞地又云﹕「又若汝心雖得寂止,由失念故及由串習諸相尋思,隨煩惱等諸過失故,如鏡中面所緣影像數現在前,隨所生起,即更當修不念作意,謂先所見諸過患相增上力故,即於如是所緣境像,由所修習不念作意,除遣散滅,當令畢竟不現在前。」

And the same text States:
when you achieve the mind of serenity in this way, signs, thoughts, or secondary afflictions may appear, manifest, or become the object, because of forgetfulness or the fault of lack of habituation. Do not fall immediately under the influence of the faults that you have previously observed; neither recall them nor pay attention to them. In this way, because you are neither being mindful of this object nor attending to it, it dissolves; and when it is dispelled, you will settle in the absence of the appearance of these obstructions.

此亦是於修止時說。諸定量論皆說修奢摩他時,不觀察修,唯安住修,故許一切不分別修,皆是修空,實為智者所應笑處,尤其說修不念作意皆是修空,聲聞地文善為破除。

This is stated in a passage concerning the practice of meditative serenity alone. In passages concerning the practice of serenity, the authoritative treatises speak only of meditation that is focused without analytical activity. So, to knowledgeable people the contention that all meditation without any discursive thought at all constitutes the practice of meditation on emptiness is laughable. In particular, this citation from Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 also perfectly refutes the assertion that all references to meditation with no mindfulness or attention is meditation on emptiness.

又修次初編云﹕「奢摩他自性者,唯是心一境性,故此即是一切奢摩他總相。」

Furthermore, Kamalaśīla's 《first Stages of Meditation》 says:
The nature of serenity is nothing more than a one-pointed mind. This is the general characteristic of all meditative serenity.

《慧度教授論》云﹕「應當遠離緣慮種種心相意言,修奢摩他。」意言者謂分別此是此等。

Ratnākaraśānti's Instructions for the Perfection of Wisdom also states: "Focusing on the mind which is perceiving various things, reject mental conversation and cultivate serenity." Mental conversation is the discursive thought, "This is this."

又《寶雲經》說,奢摩他是心一境性,已引如是眾多經論,曾經多次說奢摩他全無分別。

Moreover, after earlier citing numerous sūtras and treatises by the great trailblazers, including the discussion in the 《Cloud of Jewels Sūtra》 concerning serenity as mental one-pointedness, I have already explained numerous times that serenity entails no discursive thought whatsoever.

故無分別略有二種,謂修空無分別及於空性全未悟解諸無分別,故不應執凡有一切安樂
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明顯無分別者,皆是修空。

Therefore, there is a non-discursive awareness that meditates on emptiness as well as a non-discursive awareness that lacks even the slightest cognition of emptiness. So do not regard every occurrence bliss, clarity, and non-discursive awareness as meditation on emptiness.

此等乃是略示方隅,應善策勵了知慈尊及無著等所解,修止觀法。

These comments disclose only a portion of this subject; so strive diligently and understand the ways of accomplishing serenity and insight as elucidated by Maitreya, Asanga, and so on.

若不爾者,尚未得止,便於少分無分別定,誤為能斷三有根本毘缽舍那。

you fail to do so, you will mistake certain concentration that are focused non-discursively—but without even reaching serinity for the insight which cuts the root of cyclic existence.

於此起慢,謂修無緣,空度時日,定欺自他。

And, after you have arrogantly held this to be an awareness without a truly existent object, as time goes by you will certainly deceive yourself and others.

定量智者所造論中,說於新修奢摩他時,唯應止修無分別住,初修觀時,以觀察慧思擇而修。

The treatises of authoritative scholars and adepts assert that when you newly practice Serenity, you exclusively focus your attention non-discursively in stabilizing meditation; and when you first practice insight, you meditate by means of analysis with discerning wisdom.

若執一切分別,皆是實執,捨此一切,即違一切定量經論。

Once you hold that all thought consists of grasping to true existence and discard it altogether, your understanding is turned directly away from the authoritative treatises, and you do not reach an errorless view of selflessness.

未得無謬無我正見,凡無分別,皆說是修甚深空義毘缽舍那,純粹支那堪布修法,細觀三編修次第中自當了知。

Nevertheless, the notion that the absence of thought constitutes meditation on the profound object of insight is simply the unadulterated system of the Chinese master Ha-shang. Take a careful look at Kamalaśīla's three 《Stages of Meditation》, and you will understand.

◎第二顯示依奢摩他趣總道軌。

3.2 A general presentation of the way to proceed along the path on the basis of meditative serenity

如是已得如前所說無分別三摩地作意,又有明顯無分別等殊勝差別,唯應修此無分別耶。

Question: Should you simply sustain a non-discursive awareness characterized by clarity, non-discursiveness, etc., by achieving attention entailing non-discursive concentration as explained previously?

答於相續中引發如此妙三摩地,是為引生能斷煩惱毘缽舍那。

Reply: Producing such concentration in your mind-stream is for the purpose of generating insight that overcomes afflictions.

若不依此,令生毘缽舍那,任如何修此三摩地,尚不能斷欲界煩惱,况能盡斷一切煩惱,故當更修毘缽舍那。

Hence, if you do not generate insight on the basis of this concentration, you will be unable to eliminate even the afflictions of the desire realm, no matter how much you grow accustomed to that concentration. In that case, what need is there even to mention eliminating all afflictions? Therefore, cultivate insight.

此復有二,一能暫伏煩惱現行,趣世間道毘缽舍那。二能永斷煩惱種子,趣出世道毘缽舍那。除此更無上進方便,

Furthermore, there are two kinds of insight: the insight proceeding by the mundane path, which eliminates manifest afflictions, and the insight proceeding by the supramundane path, which eradicates the seed of afflictions. There is no means of proceeding on a higher Path other than these two.

如《聲聞地》云﹕「已得作意諸瑜伽師,已入如是少分樂斷,從此已後唯有二趣更無所餘。何等為二,一者世間,二出世間。」

Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》 states:
「Thus, the yogi who has achieved attention and has entered the small delight of elimination of afflictions has two ways to progress, and no others. What are these two? They are the mundane and the supramundane.」

如是已得正奢摩他,或作意者,或欲修習世間道毘缽舍那,或欲修出世道毘缽舍那,皆於先得
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奢摩他道應多修習。

Therefore, one who has achieved meditative serenity, or attention, may cultivate either the insight of the mundane path or the insight that proceeds by the supramundane path. Whichever you wish to cultivate, you must frequently cultivate the serenity achieved previously;

如是修故,所有輕安心一境性皆得增長,其奢摩他亦極堅固。

and when you practice in this way, pliancy and mental one-pointedness greatly increase, and serenity also becomes much more stable.

又應善巧止觀眾相,後於二道隨樂何往,即於彼道發起加行。

Moreover, you become knowledgeable about the signs of serenity and insight, and thereafter you strive at whichever of the two paths you want.

如《聲聞地》云﹕「彼初修業諸瑜伽師,由有作意,或念我當往世間趣,或念我當往出世趣。復多修習如是作意,如如於此極多修習,如是如是所有輕安心一境性。經歷彼彼日夜等位轉復增廣。

The 《Śrāvaka Levels》: In regard to this, the novice yogis who are endowed with attention reflect, "I shall proceed by either the mundane or the supramundane path," and they frequently apply themselves to this attention. Commensurate with how much they pass the days and nights in frequent practice, their pliancy and mental one-pointedness increase, expand, and are broadened.

若此作意堅固相續,強盛而轉,發起清淨所緣勝解,於止觀品善取其相,彼於爾時或世間道或出世道,隨所樂往,即當於彼發起加行。」

When their attention becomes firm, stable, and solid, when it engages pure objects at will, and when if is imbued with the signs associated with serenity and insight, at that time they strive at their practice along the mundane path or the supramundane path, whichever they wish to follow.

其中世間毘缽舍那修粗靜相,謂觀下地粗性上地靜性。

Mundane insight consists of meditation bearing the aspects of calmness and coarseness, in which you observe the coarseness of the lower levels and the calmness of the higher levels.

其出世間毘缽舍那,聲聞地所說者,謂於四諦觀無常等十六行相,主要通達補特伽羅無我正見。

Supramundane insight, as stated in the 《Śrāvaka Levels》, consists of meditation which observes the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths, including impermanence, and so on. Principally you cultivate the view which is the knowledge of the selflessness of the person.

◎若得前說奢摩他作意,有幾種補特伽羅,於現法中不趣出世道而趣世間道。

Question: What kind of person achieves the attention of serenity explained previously and does not proceed by the supramundane path in that lifetime, but proceeds by the mundane path?

如《聲聞地》云﹕「問,此中幾種補特伽羅,即於現法樂往世間道非出世道。

Reply: The 《Śrāvaka Levels》 states: What persons proceed in this life solely by the mundane path and not by the supramundane path?

答,略有四種一一切外道,二於正法中根性鈍劣先修止行,三根性雖利善根未熟,四一切菩薩樂當來世證大菩提非於現法。」

There are the following four types of persons:
(1) all those who are not Buddhists;
(2) those who adhere to this [Buddhist] teaching but, while they have practiced serenity well, are of dull faculties;
(3) similarly, those who are of sharp faculties, but whose roots of virtue have not matured; and
(4) bodhisattvas who wish to achieve enlightenment in the future, but not in this life.

外道瑜伽師一切得如前說奢摩他者,然於無我無觀察慧觀擇而修,彼於無我不信解故,或唯修此無分別止,或更進修粗靜行相毘缽舍那,故唯能往世間之道。

In that regard, all non-Buddhist yogis who have achieved the meditative serenity explained earlier do not use discerning wisdom to sustain an analysis of the selflessness of the person, for they are not drawn to selflessness. Therefore, they either sustain non-discursive meditative serenity alone, or they cultivate just the insight bearing the aspects of calmness and coarseness. In this way, they proceed solely by the mundane path.

又正法中佛諸弟子,若是鈍根於奢摩他先多修習,故不樂修於無我義觀慧思擇,或雖樂修,然
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不能了真無我義,故於現法亦唯能往世間之道,以唯修住分,或唯能修粗靜行相毘缽舍那故。

If you are a practitioner of this teaching, a Buddhist, but have dull faculties and have previously been deeply habituated to the stabilizing meditation of serenity alone, you will not be interested in meditation which investigates the meaning of selflessness with discerning wisdom. Or, even if you are interested, due to an inability to understand the meaning of selflessness, you will proceed in this life solely by the mundane path. This is because you either sustain the stability of serenity alone, or you cultivate just the insight bearing the aspects of calmness and coarseness.

又諸利根佛弟子眾,雖能悟解真無我義,若諦現觀善根未熟,則於現法亦不能生諸出世間無漏聖道,故名唯往世間道,非緣無我不能修習毘缽舍那。

Even if you are a Buddhist of sharp faculties who has comprehended the meaning of selflessness, if your roots of virtue for perceptually knowing the truth have not matured, in this life you will still be unable to generate the supramundane, undefiled, noble path. In this case, it is said that you will "proceed by the mundane path alone," but not that you are unable to cultivate insight focused on selflessness.

又菩薩成佛,雖一生補處亦必來世,於最後有從加行道四道俱生,於一生補處時聖道不起,故於現法唯往世間道,非未通達真無我義。

Consider bodhisattvas who are bound to one more birth before buddhahood and who during their next lifetime, their final rebirth in cyclic existence, will produce in their mind-streams the four paths, beginning with the path of preparation. While they are still bound to one more birth, they are unable to generate the noble path. So it is said that in this lifetime they "proceed by the mundane path," but not that they fail to know the meaning of selflessness.

如《俱舍論》云﹕「佛麟喻菩提,依邊定一坐,前順解脫分。」

Vasubandhu's 《Treasury of Knowledge》 states:
For Our Teacher and the rhinoceros-like pratyekabuddhas
All paths, from preparation to enlightenment,
Are on the one last meditative stabilization.
Prior to that are the aids to liberation [the path of accumulation].

此順小乘教成佛道理,非無著菩薩自許如是。

This accords with the way of achieving buddhahood taught in the Hinayāna treatises, but it is not the Mahāyāna interpretation of the noble master Asanga.

由是外道修粗靜相道伏煩惱現行,內佛弟子修無我義斷煩惱根本,皆須先得如前所說奢摩他定。故前所說此奢摩他,是內外道諸瑜伽師伏斷煩惱所依根本。

Therefore, non-Buddhists who eliminate manifest afflictions by meditating on the path bearing the aspects of calmness and coarseness, as well as Buddhists who radically eliminate afflictions by meditating on the meaning of selflessness, must first of all achieve the concentration of meditative serenity explained earlier. So the serenity explained above is needed by non-Buddhist and Buddhist yogis as the basis for eliminating afflictions.

◎又大小乘諸瑜伽師亦皆須修此三摩地,即大乘中若顯密乘諸瑜伽師,一切皆須修奢摩他,故此奢摩他是一切修觀行者,共所行道最要根本。

Furthermore, yogis of either the Mahāyāna or the Hinayāna must also achieve this concentration; and even among the Mahāyāna practitioners, all yogis of both the mantra and perfection vehicles must also achieve meditative serenity. So this serenity is extremely important as the basis for proceeding along the paths of all yogis.

又咒教所說奢摩他,唯除少分所緣差別,謂緣形像或緣三昧耶相,或種子字等,及除少分生定方便差別而外,其斷懈怠等三摩地五種過失,及能對治依止正念及正知等。

Moreover, the serenity explained in the tantric texts contains certain differences in methods for generating concentration and in objects of meditation, such as focusing on a divine form, on hand implements of the chosen deity, or on syllables. But apart from those, they are entirely alike in terms of the need to eliminate the five faults of concentration, including laziness and so on; in terms of the means of cultivating their antidotes, such as mindfulness and vigilance, and so on;

其次獲得第九住心,從此引發妙輕安等,一切皆共。

and in terms of the achievement of the nine mental states and the ensuing occurrence of pliancy, etc. so this concentration is very widespread.

此三摩地極其寬廣,故《解深密經》密意宣說,大乘小乘一切等持,皆是止觀三
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摩地攝。故欲善巧諸三摩地,應當善巧止觀二法。

With this in mind, the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》 states that all Mahāyāna and Hinayāna concentrations are included within the concentrations of serenity and insight. Thus, you who wish to be skilled in concentration should become skilled in serenity and insight.

◎生此三摩地奢摩他作意,義雖多種,然主要者是為引發毘缽舍那之證德。

Although there are many purposes for developing this concentration (the attention of serenity), the chief purpose is for the sake of developing the knowledge of insight.

毘缽舍那又有二種,一內外大小乘所共,能暫伏煩惱現行粗靜行相毘缽舍那,二唯佛弟子內道別法,畢竟斷除煩惱種子,修習無我真實行相毘缽舍那。

Moreover, in terms of insight there are two kinds: (1) that which bears the aspects of calmness and coarseness, which eliminates only manifest afflictions, and which is common to Buddhists and non-Buddhists; and (2) that which is common to Buddhists, both Mahāyāna practitioners and Hinayāna practitioners; that is, insight bearing the aspect of the reality of selflessness, which utterly eliminates the seeds of the afflictions. This last is a unique quality of Buddhists.

前是圓滿支分,非必不可少,後是必不可少之支。故求解脫者,應生能證無我真實毘缽舍那。

The former is a luxury, not something indispensable; while the latter is an indispensable element. So those aspiring for freedom should produce the insight that comprehends the reality of selflessness.

以若得前說第一靜慮未到地攝正奢摩他,縱未獲得以上靜慮及無色奢摩他,然即依彼止修習勝觀,亦能脫離一切生死繫縛而得解脫。

Furthermore, even if you do not achieve the higher meditative stabilizations of the form realm or the meditative absorptions of the formless realm, but do achieve the serenity explained previously, which is included in the level of access to the first meditative stabilization, then you can achieve liberation—freedom from all the fetters of cyclic existence—by cultivating insight based on that serenity.

若未通達未能修習無我真實,僅由前說正奢摩他,及依彼所發世間毘缽舍那,斷無所有下一切現行煩惱得有頂心,然終不能脫離生死。

By means of mundane insight developed on the basis of the serenity explained earlier, you can achieve the "mind of the Peak of Cyclic Existence," which has eliminated all of the manifest affictions of the formless level of nothingness and below. But if you do not know the reality of selflessness and meditate upon it, you will not be liberated from cyclic existence.

如《讚應讚論》中讚置答云﹕「未入佛正法,癡盲諸眾生,乃至上有頂,仍苦感三有。若隨佛教行,雖未得本定,諸魔勤看守,而能斷三有。」

Thus, Mātrceta's "Praise that Falls Short," [the first chapter of his] 《Praise in Honor of One Worthy of Honor》 says:
Those opposed to your teaching
Are blinded by delusion.
Even after Venturing to the peak of cyclic existence, Suffering occurs again, and cyclic existence is maintained.
Those who follow your teaching—
Even if they do not achieve actual meditative stabilization—
Turn away from cyclic existence,
While under the steady gaze of the eyes of Māra.

故預流一來,一切能得聖道毘缽舍那所依之奢摩他,即前所說第一靜慮近分所攝正奢摩他。

Therefore, the meditative serenity that serves as the basis for the insight that achieves the noble paths of all stream-enterers and once-returners is the serenity explained earlier, which is included in the access to the first meditative stabilization.

如是當知一切頓證諸阿羅漢,皆依前說正奢摩他而勤修習毘缽舍那證阿羅漢,故若身中未得前說奢摩他定,必不得生緣如所有或盡所有毘缽舍那真實證德,後當廣說。

Similarly, know that all arhats who simultaneously eliminate the afflictions become arhats by cultivating insight on the basis of the meditative serenity explained earlier. If you do not first establish in your mind-stream the concentration of serenity explained previously, it is not possible for the actual knowledge of insight which is focused on either the real nature or the diversity of all phenomena to arise. This will be discussed later on.

故修無上瑜伽觀行師,雖不必生緣所有粗靜行相毘缽舍那,及彼所引
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正奢摩他,然必須生一正奢摩他。

Therefore, while yogis in the highest yoga tantra tradition may not develop the insight bearing the aspects of calmness and coarseness which focuses on the diversity of all phenomena, or the serenity generated by this insight, they must develop serenity.

初生之時,亦是生起圓滿二次第中初次第時生。

Moreover, the point at which serenity first arises, in terms of the stage of generation and the stage of completion, is during the first of these two.

總應先生正奢摩他,次即依彼或由粗靜行相毘缽舍那,漸進諸道乃至有頂,或由無我真實行相毘缽舍那,漸行五道而趣解脫或一切智,是佛教中總印所印。

In Summary, you must first develop serenity and then on this basis you may proceed on a graduated path up to the Peak of Cyclic Existence by means of insight bearing the aspects of calmness and coarseness; or you may proceed along the five paths of liberation or omniscience by means of insight bearing the aspect of the reality of selflessness. This constitutes the general seal of the Conqueror's teachings,

故隨修何種瑜伽皆不應違越,是謂總顯依奢摩他趣上道軌。

so no yogi can depart from it. The preceding is a general presentation of the way to proceed from high to higher paths on the basis of meditative serenity.

第三顯示別趣世間道軌分二,一 顯往粗靜相道先須獲得正奢摩他,二 依奢摩他離欲之理。 

3.3. A specific presentation of the way to proceed along the mundane path.
Here there are two sections:
3.3.1 the need to achieve meditative serenity before proceeding on the path bearing the aspects of calmness and coarseness, and
3.3.2 on the basis of meditative serenity, the way to freedom from attachment to the desire realm.

  今初

3.3.1 the need to achieve meditative serenity before proceeding on the path bearing the aspects of calmness and coarseness

◎由了相門修粗靜相道,須得前說正奢摩他,

One who cultivates the path bearing the aspects of calmness and coarseness by way of discernment of characteristics must first achieve the meditative Serenity explained earlier,

如《莊嚴經論》云﹕「由此令彼增,由增極遠行,而得根本住。」

for the 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》 says:
Upon increasing this concentration,
And by increasing it further,
The yogi achieves actual meditative stabilization.

謂得前說第九住心及諸輕安,由此增長彼三摩地,依此引發根本靜慮。

This states that one who has achieved the previously explained ninth mental state, together with pliancy, increases this concentration and there by achieves actual meditative stabilization.

又從第九心乃至未得作意時,說名作意初修業者。

Moreover, from the time of the ninth mental state up until you achieve the attention [of the discernment of characteristics], you are said to attain a "beginner at attention [first attainment of serenity]."

從得作意,為淨煩惱修習了相作意時,名淨煩惱初修業者。故修了相是先已得作意,

Once you have achieved the attention of the discernment of characteristics, and you cultivate it out of a desire to purify afflictions, you are said to attain a "beginner at purifying afflictions." So one who cultivates the discernment of characteristics first achieves attention [serenity].

如《聲聞地》云﹕「云何作意初修業者,謂專注一緣勤修作意,乃至未得所作作意,未能觸證心一境性,是名作意初修業者。云何淨煩惱初修業者,謂已證得所修作意,於諸煩惱欲淨其心,發起攝受正勤修習了相作意。」

The 《Śrāvaka Levels》states:
A "beginner at attention" is a beginner while not attaining attention with respect to one-pointedness [on the aspects of calmness and coarseness] and until reaching one-pointedness. A "beginner at purifying afflictions" occurs after attaining this attention and begins with the attainment of the attention of the discernment of characteristics—an attention which desires to purify the mind from the afflictions and is a familiarization with this practice.

《第四瑜伽》卷首亦說已得作意,次修世間及出世間離欲道故。

Also at the beginning of the fourth section it is said that you cultivate the mundane and supramundane paths of detachment after you have achieved attention [serenity].

又先具足如前所說正奢摩他,次
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修世間及出世間毘缽舍那,暫伏永斷煩惱之理,於餘對法論中未見明顯如此廣說。

This very extensive explanation in the 《Śrāvaka Levels》 of the process of eliminating afflictions by first accomplishing the serenity explained above and then achieving mundane and supramundane insight does not clearly appear in other treatises on knowledge.

故昔善巧大小對法諸先覺等,於此先修專住一緣正奢摩他及依此故,暫伏永斷煩惱之理皆未能顯。

Former scholars who were learned in the earlier higher and lower texts on knowledge also have not clearly articulated this process of eliminating afflictions on the basis of first accomplishing one-pointed serenity.

若未善解聲聞地義,便覺靜慮無色最下之道,是初靜慮之近分,於彼說有六種作意,初是了相。

Therefore, if you have not understood well this explanation in the 《Śrāvaka Levels》, you might have the following mistaken idea: The lowest stage on the path of the meditative stabilizations of the form realm and the meditative absorptions of the formless realm is the access to the first stabilization. And the first of the six types of attention explained with respect to this is the discernment of characteristics.

故起誤解謂初生近分攝心,即了相作意,若如是計極不應理,

Therefore, the discernment of characteristics is a state of mind at the beginning of the access. It is very incorrect to hold such a view, for these reasons:

以若未得正奢摩他,必不能生初靜慮之近分,未得近分定不能得奢摩他故。

(1) without achieving serenity you have no way to produce access to the first meditative stabilization; (2) if you do not achieve this access you will not achieve serenity; and

了相作意是觀察修,由修習此,若先未得正奢摩他不能新生故。

(3) since discernment of characteristics consists of analytical meditation, by cultivating it you will not be able to newly accomplish the serenity that you have not achieved earlier.

又如先引本地分說,欲界心一境性無諸輕安,解深密經等說,未得輕安即不得止。

According to the quotation from the 《Levels of Yogic Deeds》 cited earlier: there is no pliancy in one-pointedness within the desire realm; and the 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》 and so on state that if you do not achieve pliancy, you will not accomplish serenity.

故未得近分即未能得正奢摩他,

Thus, if you do not achieve the first access state, you will not achieve serenity.

故初近分六作意之最初者,是修近分所攝毘缽舍那之首,非初近分之最初,其前尚有近分所攝奢摩他故。

Therefore, the first of the six types of attention of the first access State [the six causal attentions in the list of seven attentions mentioned below] is the entrance to cultivating the insight included in the access state, but it is not right at the beginning of the first access state, for it must be preceded by the serenity that is included in the access state.

未得初近分所攝三摩地前,一切等持,皆是欲界心一境性。

All states of concentration prior to the achievement of the concentrations included in the first access state are solely mental one-pointedness in the desire realm.

若依諸大教典之義,得奢摩他者亦極稀少,況云能得毘缽舍那。

So if you adhere to the explanations in the classic texts, there are very few who achieve even serenity, let alone insight.

◎第二依奢摩他離欲之理。

3.3.2 on the basis of meditative serenity, the way to freedom from attachment to the desire realm

唯修前說,具足明顯無分別等眾多殊勝正奢摩他,全不修習二種勝觀,且不能伏欲界所有現行煩惱,況能永斷煩惱種子及所知障,故欲離欲界欲得初靜慮者,應依此止而修勝觀。

Once you have become familiar with just the meditative serenity explained earlier, which bear the many attributes of clarity, nondiscursive awareness, etc., if you do not cultivate either of the two kinds of insight, you will not be able to suspend even the manifest afflictions of the desire realm. In that case, what need is there to mention eliminating the seeds of afflictions and cognitive obscurations? Therefore, if you wish to achieve the first stabilization, which is free of attachment to the desire realm, cultivate insight on the basis of that serenity.

前說修奢摩他,能伏煩惱現行豈不相違,

Qualm: Well, why does this not contradict the earlier statement that if you become accustomed to serenity alone, you will suppress manifest afflictions?

答無有過失,前
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依世間毘缽舍那,悉皆攝為奢摩他而說,此依二種毗缽舍那前行初禪近分所攝奢摩他說。

Reply: There is no problem, for the earlier explanation subsumed mundane insight under the category of meditative serenity; but this explanation refers to the serenity that is included in the first access state and that precedes both types of insight.

能引離欲毘缽舍那略有二種,謂由諦行相及由粗靜相離欲之理,此說由其後道離欲。

Moreover, with respect to the insight that accomplishes freedom from attachment, there are the two ways of freeing yourself, one by means of insight bearing the aspect of the truths and the other by the insight that bears the aspects of calmness and coarseness. This present discussion is a presentation of the way to accomplish freedom from attachment by way of the latter of these two paths.

修此之身,謂未少得無我正見諸外道眾,及正法中具足無我見者二所共修。

With regard to this, the persons who cultivate it are both non-Buddhists, who utterly lack the view of selflessness, and followers of this teaching [Buddhists] who have the view of selflessness.

彼修何道而斷煩惱,如《聲聞地》云﹕「為離欲界欲勤修觀行,諸瑜伽師由七作意,方能獲得離欲界欲。何等為七,謂了相,勝解,遠離,攝樂,觀察,加行究竟,加行究竟果作意。」

The type of path they cultivate in order to eliminate the afflictions accords with the teachings of the 《Śrāvaka Levels》:
For the sake of freedom from the desire realm, diligent yogis use the seven types of attention and subsequently achieve their freedom. The seven types of attention are: the attention of (1) the discernment of characteristics, (2) arisal from belief, (3) isolation, (4) delight or withdrawal, (5) analysis, (6) final application, and (7) the result of final application.

最後作意是證離欲根本定時所有作意,即所修果,前六作意是能修因。

Among those, the final one is the attention at the time of entering the actual state of meditative stabilization upon being freed from attachment to the desire realm; so this is what is to be accomplished, while the former six are what accomplishes it.

◎若此非由修無我義而斷煩惱,為決擇修習何義而斷煩惱耶,

Question: If in this case you are not eliminating the afflictions through meditation on the meaning of selflessness, then what kind of thing are you establishing and then meditating on to eliminate the afflictions?

雖由此道亦伏欲界餘惑現行,然唯說名離欲界欲。故主要者,謂由修習欲貪對治而斷煩惱,其欲貪者此為貪欲五種欲塵,故能對治,是於欲塵多觀過患。

Reply: Although other manifest afflictions of the desire realm are eliminated with this path bearing the aspects of calmness and coarseness, the phrase "to free yourself from attachment to the desire realm" refers chiefly to eliminating attachment by way of its antidote. Moreover, attachment refers here to the yearning for and attachment to the five sensory objects of the desire realm. The antidote to this is to regard sensory objects as disadvantageous in a multitude of ways.

違貪欲相而善修習,由此能於欲界離欲,

By thus adhering to the opposite of the mode of apprehension of attachment and then accustoming yourself to it, you become free from attachment to the desire realm.

此雖無倒了解諸欲過失及初靜慮功德,而有堅固了相定解,若先未得正奢摩他,隨久觀修此二德失,然終不能斷除煩惱。

Furthermore, you may have the firm certainty of the discernment of characteristics, an unmistaken discernment of the faults of the desire realm and the good qualities of the first meditative stabilization. Nevertheless, if you have not already accomplished serenity, you will not be able to eliminate afflictions no matter how familiar you become with distinguishing between those faults and good qualities.

又雖已得正奢摩他,若無明了觀察,隨修幾久,亦定不能斷除煩惱。

Moreover, even if you have achieved serenity, if you do not analyze with discernment, however much you cultivate serenity, you will not be able to eliminate afflictions.

故須雙修止觀方能斷除,此一切伏斷煩惱共同建立。

Thus, you must eliminate them by way of cultivating both serenity and insight. This is the procedure for every elimination of afflictions.

如是別思上下諸地功德過失善了其相,時為聞成,時為思成,故此作意聞思間雜。

In that case, the seven types of attention are described as follows:
1. The knowledge of characteristics [the discernment of characteristics] in which one distinguishes between the faults and advantages of the lower and higher levels entails the integration of study and reflection by means of mental states arisen from study on some occasions and those arisen from reflection on other occasions.

由如是修超過聞思,唯有修相一向勝解
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粗靜之義,是名勝解作意。

2. By familiarizing yourself in this way, you will exclusively believe in the objects of calmness and coarseness by way of meditation that transcends study and reflection; and this is the attention arisen from belief.

《聲聞地》云﹕「於所緣相修奢摩他毘缽舍那。」

In this regard the 《Śrāvaka Levels》 states, "Focusing on that very sign [coarseness and calmness], you cultivate serenity and insight";

《第六作意時》亦云﹕「修奢摩他毘缽舍那。」

and even in the passage concerning the sixth attention there is reference to cultivating serenity and insight.

初作意時說緣義等六事,此於餘處毘缽舍那中亦多宣說,是故此等雖非修習無我正見,然是毘缽舍那亦不相違。

The passage on the first attention speaks of focusing on the six elements, including the meaning, and in other passages this focusing is frequently referred to as insight. Hence, even though this does no entail cultivating the view of selflessness, it is insight.

故此諸作意之時,是由雙修止觀而斷煩惱,修習之理,謂若分辨粗靜之義數數觀察,即是修習毘缽舍那,觀察之後於粗靜義一趣安住,即是修習正奢摩他。

Thus, in the context of these types of attention you eliminate afflictions after you have meditated by way of both serenity and insight. Here is how you cultivate the two: you cultivate insight by repeatedly analyzing the distinct objects of calmness and coarseness, and at the conclusion of this analysis you cultivate serenity by one-pointedly focusing on these objects of calmness and coarseness.

如是所修初二作意,是為厭壞對治。

The second and first types of attention in such meditation are the antidote of disillusionment.

如是輾轉修習止觀,由修習故,若時生起欲界上品煩惱對治,是名遠離作意。

3. When on the basis of familiarizing yourself with the alternating cultivation of serenity and insight in that way, you give rise to the antidote to the great afflictions of the desire realm, this is called isolated attention.

又由間雜薰修止觀,若能伏斷中品煩惱,是名攝樂作意。

4. Further, the attention of delight or withdrawal is when you are able to eliminate middling afflictions by means of the alternating cultivation of serenity and insight.

次若觀見能障善行欲界煩惱,住定出定皆不現行,不應粗尋便謂我今已斷煩惱。

5. Then, when you see that the desire realm's afflictions that obstruct your endeavors in virtue are not activated either while abiding in concentration or when you have risen from it, do not have the coarse thought, "Now I have eliminated the afflictions."

當更審察,為我實於諸欲尚未離欲而不行耶,抑由離欲而不行耶,作是念已,為醒覺故,隨於一種可愛淨境攀緣思惟,若見貪欲仍可生起,為斷彼故喜樂修習,是名為觀察作意,由此能捨未斷謂斷諸增上慢。

Rather, analyze, "Is the attachment of sensual attraction not being activated while I am not freed of it? Or, is it not activated after I have been freed from it?" Then in order to test this, watch attachment arise when you focus on a very beautiful object of attachment. Thereafter your interest in meditation for the sake of eliminating this attachment is analytical attention. This gets rid of the conceit of thinking that you have eliminated that which has not been eliminated.

次更如前於粗靜義別別觀察,於觀察後安住一趣,由善薰修此二事故,若時生起欲界下品煩惱對治,是名加行究竟作意。

6. Then again you both analytically discriminate the objects of calmness and coarseness as before and focus one-pointedly at the conclusion of the analysis. The attention of final application is when by meditating in this way you give rise to the antidote to the small afflictions of the desire realm.

第三第四第六作意,是能伏斷煩惱對治。

The third, fourth and sixth types of attention are antidotes that eliminate afflictions.

◎如是若斷輭品煩惱,即是摧壞一切欲界煩惱現行,暫無少分而能現起,然非畢竟永
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害種子,由此能離無所有處以下諸欲,然尚不能滅除有頂現行煩惱,何況能得永度生死。

7. Thus, when you have eliminated the small afflictions, you have overcome all the manifest afflictions of the desire realm, and for the time being they are not activated in the slightest degree. But you have not completely destroyed the seeds of those afflictions. By this means you are freed from attachment to states up to Nothingness, but since you are unable to stop even the manifest afflictions of the Peak of Cyclic Existence, you cannot transcend the cycle of existence.

然依靜慮亦能獲得五種神通,恐繁不錄,如聲聞地,極廣宣說,應當了知。

However, on the basis of meditative stabilization you also achieve the five kinds of superknowledge, but I shall not discuss them due to fear of verbosity. Since this is elaborated upon in Asanga's 《Śrāvaka Levels》, look there.

現在無修此等根本靜慮之理,故亦無有錯誤引導,然於此等若真了解,則於餘定亦斷歧途最為利益。

Nowadays there is no one who uses these methods to accomplish the actual meditative stabilizations and so on, so there is no one to lead you astray Nevertheless, if you generate an understanding that is not confined to a mere general verbal description of them, it is very helpful for avoiding the pitfalls of concentrations other than these.

如是四種靜慮,四無色定及五神通與外道共,唯得此定非但不能脫離生死,反於生死而為繫縛,故於奢摩他不應喜足,更當尋求真無我見毘缽舍那。

Such concentrations of the four meditative stabilizations of the form realm and the four meditative absorptions of the formless realm, as well as the five kinds of superknowledge, are shared with non-Buddhists. So, even if you achieve such extraordinary concentrations, not only will you not be liberated from the cycle of existence by these alone, they even bind you to the cycle of existence. Therefore, seek discerning insight and the view of selflessness, and do not be satisfied with serenity alone.

縱未廣知修初靜慮等根本定法,然於前說修奢摩他,或名作意法定當了知。

Even if you lack extensive knowledge of the means of accomplishing the actual first stabilization and so on, you should certainly look carefully into the heart of the following discussions and come to know at least something of the teachings themselves, free of your own fabrications:

此是般若波羅蜜多甚深經等所說九種住心,中觀修次之所建立,如前已引。

(1) the discussion given above concerning the nine ways of focusing your mind, set forth in the previously cited Mādhyamaka Stages of Meditation, that are the means of accomplishing the aforementioned "serenity" or "attention" that comes from the profound 《Perfection of Wisdom sutras》, etc.;

又《莊嚴經論》及無著菩薩,於菩薩地大乘對法攝決擇分解彼意趣。又攝決擇分於止觀二法,指聲聞地,故聲聞地解釋最廣。

(2) their intended meaning as expounded in Maitreya's 《Ornament for the Mahāyāna Sūtras》;
(3) the noble Asanga's summary discussions of them in his 《Bodhisattva Levels》, 《Compendium of Knowledge》, and 《Compendium of Determinations》, and extensive explanation of them in his 《Śrāvaka Levels》 in accordance with the indication in his 《Compendium of Bases》 that both serenity and insight are discussed in the 《Śrāvaka Levels》;

又此諸義,中觀修次論及慧度教授論亦曾宣說。

(4) the discussions of their meaning in the 《Mādhyamaka Stages of Meditation》 and Ratnākaraśānti's 《Instructions for the Perfection of Wisdom》;

又《辨中邊論》說,由八斷行斷五過理,修奢摩他法,今善觀彼等諸心要義,略示一二全無杜撰。

and also (5) the way to accomplish serenity through the eight antidotes and the ways to eliminate the five faults, in Maitreya's 《Separation of the Middle from the Extremes》.

現在修靜慮者,且無此等之名。又有一類先學論時,雖知其名,然未善其義,後修行時,見無所須棄而修餘。

Some practitioners of meditative stabilization are not even familiar with the mere names of the meditations. Some become familiar with just the words when they study the classics, but they do not properly understand the meaning. When they then get around to practice they see no need for those treatises, discard them as being of no account, and sustain their meditation.

又有眾多略得止品所攝正定,便謂已得空三摩地,

Consequently, when they achieve a state of concentration that is fit to be included in the category of serenity, they maintain that it is concentration on emptiness, which is an indication that they have not discerned the point of the practice with careful understanding.

或得內外所共第九住心定,便謂已得無上瑜伽具眾德相圓滿次第,及謂已得根本後得合雜無間無分別智。皆是未能善解之相。

When they achieve merely the ninth mental state, which is a concentration commonto both Buddhists and non-Buddhists, they claim to have experienced the completion stage of highest yoga tantra with its complete characteristics. Many of these persons, after they have mingled meditative equipoise with the post-meditation state, mistakenly assert that this experience is uninterrupted, non-discursive wisdom.

若於上說善得定解,則不因其假說修無所緣,
- p.397 -
無相了義,美妙名稱而生誤解。

When you gain proper certainty concerning the previous explanations, you will not be deceived by the mere designation of such enticing terms as meditation on the objectless, the signless, and the definitive meaning.

若能實知此定之義,便能了知歧非歧途,故於此諸定量教說修三摩地次第,應當善巧。

By knowing the extent of the meanings of these concentrations, you will recognize what are and are not deviations from the path. Therefore, become skilled in the stages of accomplishing concentration taught in those authoritative treatises.

經及廣釋論善說修定軌, 因文簡直故狹慧未能解, 反謂此經論無無分別教,
不於有處求無處求謂得, 尚且未能辨內外定差別, 况能善分辨小乘及大乘,
顯教與密教三摩地差別, 見此故顯說大論修定法。 久習大論友莫捨自珍寶,
而取他假石願識寶自有, 佛見除汝學別無教授義, 讚聞住林樂願觀察彼義,
無分別止道修法與修量, 未得善了解劬勞修定師, 尚須依智者如實知修法,
否則暫休息於教損害小, 慈尊無著論所說修止法, 為聖教久住故今略解釋,

Here I say:

Profound are the descriptions of the stages for achieving concentration
Well taught in the sūtras and the great commentaries.
Those of little intelligence do not precisely comprehend them,
Projecting the faults of their own minds upon others.

Thinking, "There are no instructions there for sustaining nondiscursive awareness,"
They do not look for them in texts that have them,
And they think they have found them
After diligently seeking them where they do not exist.

Such people fail to distinguish between
Even the concentrations of Buddhists and non-Buddhists.
What need, then, is there to mention
Their precisely distinguishing the differences

Between concentrations of the Mahāyāna and Hinayāna
And of the Vajrayāna and Pāramitāyāna!
Seeing this situation, I have explained in simple words
The way to sustain concentration as taught in the classics.

O friends who have trained for many years in the classics,
Donot discard your precious gem
In favor of others' costume jewelry,
But recognize you have something of great value!

There is nothing apart from the meaning of the instructions
In the treatises you have studied. Knowing this,
The Master of the Sages said, "There is bliss in the forest
For those of great learning." Analyze these words.

May even those meditators who place their hopes in sheer determination,
Though they have not first acquired a proper discernment
Of how to practice and the measure of success
For the path of a fully non-discursive, focused serenity,

Come to know precisely the way to sustain
Meditation in reliance on the learned.
Otherwise, there is less harm if they take for awhile
A refreshing break from the teachings of the Conqueror.

This explanation of the way to achieve serenity
Using the treatises of Maitreya and Asanga
Is for the sake of preserving for a long time
The teachings of the Conqueror.

◎已釋上士道次第中,學菩薩行,於奢摩他靜慮自性如何學法。

Among the stages of the path of a person of great capacity, this concludes the explanation of how those who are training in the deeds of bodhisattvas train in serenity, which is meditative stabilization.

- p.398 -

菩提道次第廣論卷十六終