菩提道次第廣論卷二十四

◎ 第二自宗。

3.2 the presentation of our own system

若未得無我了義正見,其身一切修行,皆未趣無我,故須先得無我正見。

If you do not find the definitive view of selflessness, your mind will not be directed toward selflessness in any of your meditations. Therefore, you must find the view of selflessness.

又此非唯了知便足,於正修時當憶其見而復觀察,於所觀義應善修習。

Furthermore, mere understanding is not enough; when sustaining the view, you must remember it and analyze it, and you must meditate on what you have analyzed.

又於無我義須二種修,謂不觀察住與觀慧思擇,非以一分便為滿足。

In order to do that, you must have both forms of meditation: non-analytical stabilization on the meaning and analysis with discriminating wisdom. Each by itself is insufficient.

此中分三﹕一雙修止觀之理,二於彼斷諍,三略攝修要。  

This section has three parts:
3.2.1 1.Why both stabilizing meditation and analytical meditation are necessary
3.2.2 Overcoming objections to that
3.2.3 A summary of the key points for sustaining insight and serenity

今初

3.2.1 1.Why both stabilizing meditation and analytical meditation are necessary

◎雙修止觀之理者,於無我義,若無決斷定見,則不能生毘缽舍那功德,以說此見是彼因故。

If you are not certain about the view—i.e., you have not reached firm conclusions about the meaning of selflessness—then the knowledge which is insight will not develop. This is because the Buddha said that certainty about the view is the cause of insight

又說未聞彼見聖教障彼觀故,《解深密經》云﹕「世尊,此奢摩他毘缽舍那,以何為因?慈氏,清淨尸羅,聞思所成清淨正見,以為其因。」

and that failing to study instructions that explain the view is a hindrance to insight. The 《Sūtra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》 says:
Bhagavan, from what causes do serenity and insight arise?
Maitreya, they arise from the cause of pure ethics and from the cause of an authentic view based on study and reflection.

又云﹕「於諸聖教不隨欲聞,是毘缽舍那障。」

And: Failure to willingly study the instructions of noble beings is a hindrance to insight.

《那羅延請問經》說,「由聞生慧,慧斷煩惱」等,如前所引多宣說故。

Also, the 《Questions of Nārāyana》 says:
Study gives rise to wisdom and it is wisdom that eliminates the afflictions.
I cited many such statements earlier.

從彼正見生毘缽舍那之理,謂初決擇時,由多教理觀察決擇。

How does the view create insight? When you set out to determine the view, you determine it through analysis using many lines of reasoning and scriptural citations.

既決擇已,不以觀慧數思擇修,唯止住修猶不能生,故成奢摩他後,正修觀時當觀察修。

When you have determined it, you repeatedly analyze it using discriminating wisdom. Stabilizing meditation alone, without sustaining the view, will not create insight. Therefore, when you meditate after having attained serenity, you must sustain the view through continued analysis.

此有一類,初雖不許全不觀察,然以聞思決擇之後於正修時,謂觀察修諸分別心皆是相執,

Opponent: We do not claim that there is no analysis at the beginning. However, once study and reflection have determined the view, if you then practice analytical meditation during a session of meditation, these thoughts are conceptions of signs.

不如是修,是許分別皆是相執,及諸異生離分
- p.541 -
別識而修無我,前已廣破,不應道理。

Reply: It is not tenable to fail to sustain the view in this way, for we have given abundant refutation of the claim that any conceptual thoughts are conceptions of signs and of the claim that ordinary beings meditate on selflessness with a wisdom that is free from conceptual thought.

又彼一切分別皆是諦執,於正修時須破除者,正決擇時亦是分別決擇,彼等亦應破除。

Furthermore, because you claim that all of those conceptual thoughts are conceptions of true existence, if they had to be stopped during meditation on the view, then they would also have to be stopped when determining the view inasmuch as conceptual thought is needed to make those determinations.

又為弟子講說辯論著述觀閱,彼等一切皆是分別,汝於爾時,亦當破除。以諸諦執修時應破,餘時不破,無差別故。

And since you must use conceptual thought for everything, such as teaching students, debating, composing, and thinking about the view, you would also have to stop it at those times because you cannot make even the slightest distinction which allows for a conception of true existence that must be stopped during meditation, but which does not need to be stopped at other times.

若不許爾,而說教理多門觀察,是於未解無我義時,為求通達,已得正見正修行時,則無所須。

Opponent: We do not agree with that. One conducts analysis using many lines of reasoning and scriptural citations in order to know something that one does not yet know—the meaning of selflessness. During meditation, such analysis is unnecessary because the view has already been found.

若爾真見道中,現證無我,次更修習已見無我,當成無義。

Reply: If this were so, then since noble beings have perceptual knowledge of selflessness on the path of seeing, it would be pointless for them to meditate on the selflessness that they have already seen.

若謂須修,以諸修惑由修乃斷,唯以現見不能斷除。

Opponent: They must meditate on the emptiness already perceived on the path of seeing; by becoming accustomed to it, they eliminate the afflictions to be eliminated on the path of meditation. The path of seeing alone cannot eliminate those afflictions.

此亦相同,前以聞思雖已決擇,更當修習所決擇故。

Reply: Yes, and this case is similar because here, even though previous study and reflection have already determined the view with certainty, you must become accustomed to what you have determined.

如幾許修所決擇義,則有爾許猛利恆常明了堅固定解等德,可現見故。

This is because ascertainment of the view becomes strong, long-lasting, clear, and steady to the extent that one becomes accustomed to what one has determined.

《釋量論》云﹕「決定與增益,能害所害故。」

Therefore, as Dharmakirti's Commentary on the "Compendium of Valid Cognition" says:
Ascertainment and the reifying mind
Are of the nature of the canceled and that which cancels.

此說彼二能所害故,如其定解堅固猛利,增益便受爾許傷損。

Because those two are the canceled and that which cancels, reification is canceled as your ascertainment takes on qualities such as steadiness and strength.

故於此中,亦須漸增無性定解,當由多門思惟能破及能立故。

Therefore, here again you must maximize your ascertainment of the absence of intrinsic existence; you must reflect on many lines of refutations and proof.

若不爾者,則於無常業果生死過患,大菩提心及慈悲等,得了解已,應不更觀察,惟念我死而修習之,理由等故。

Suppose that this were not the case. Someone could arrive at an understanding of something such as impermanence, karma and its effects, the faults of cyclic existence, the spirit of enlightenment, love, or compassion. Then, without analyzing them further, that person would need simply to hold the single thought, "I am going to die," and then sustain it in order to have full knowledge of impermanence.

故欲引生清淨定解,惟念我死,為利有情願當成佛,眾生可愍等,但有誓願而非完足,當以眾多理由思惟。

The reasons why you must continue analysis of the view are entirely similar. In order to bring about genuine ascertainment, it is not enough to have just a pronouncement such as, "I am going to die," or "I will attain buddhahood for the sake of living beings," or "I feel compassion for living beings." You must reflect on those things using many lines of reasoning.

如是堅固猛利無性定解,唯有誓願亦非完足。

Likewise, for a steady and strong ascertainment of the absence of intrinsic existence, it is not enough to hold onto some pronouncement.

當由眾多能立能破門中思惟,於下士時已數宣說。

You have to reflect on it using many lines of refutation and proof. I have already explained this at length in the section on the person of small capacity.

修次三篇,皆說成就奢摩他後,正修觀時數觀察修。

Accordingly, all three of Kamalaśīla's 《Stages of Meditation》 say that when you meditate after you have achieved serenity, you must do much analysis in meditation.

《入中論》云﹕「故瑜伽師先破我。」說正修時應修思擇。

And Candrakirti's 《Commentary on the "Middle Way"》 says things like, "Yogis refute the self," meaning that when they meditate they carry out those analyses.

瑜伽師者,謂於止觀得隨
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一故,未得止前,非於正見不求解故。

This is because yogis do this analysis in order to find either serenity or insight; and because it is not the case that there is no search for understanding of the view prior to achieving serenity.

又靜慮後,於般若時,說見觀察,意謂由彼次第修靜慮後觀二無我。

Also, analyses of the view are set forth in the context of the perfection of wisdom, after the perfection of meditative stabilization; the critical point implied by this order is that you still analyze the two selflessnesses after achieving meditative stabilization.

《中觀心論》云﹕「具慧住定後,於名言所取,彼諸法有事,以慧如是觀。」

Bhāvaviveka's 《Heart of the Middle Way》 says:
After your mind is set in equipoise,
This is how wisdom investigates
These things, these phenomena
Which are conceived of in conventional terms.

《釋論》說為生定之後,見觀察修。

Bhāvaviveka's own commentary on this says that analyses of the view are done after achieving concentration.

《入行論》中,依靜慮品修奢摩他,次修般若說以正理,觀擇修故。

Also, in 《Engaging in the Bodhisattva Deeds》, Šantideva says that you achieve serenity in accordance with what appears in the chapter on meditative stabilization. Then, when you cultivate wisdom, you cultivate it via rational analysis.

又後二度及後二學,一切次第皆先修定,次修智慧以為次第。

Therefore, the sequence of the last two perfections and the sequence of the last two trainings are in all cases sequences in which wisdom is cultivated after you have previously achieved concentration.

又修慧時,凡說觀察如所有性,盡所有性,一切皆是修行次第,莫作異觀。

In discussions of how to cultivate that wisdom, every statement about analysis of the real nature and the diversity gives this same sequence of meditation, so do not imagine that it is the other way around.

又非但此,諸大經論皆如是說,故正修時定應觀察。

Beyond just these sources, there are many great texts that say this, so there is no doubt that you must analyze during meditation.

如是成就奢摩他後,若修觀時純修觀察,前止失壞復未新修,則無寂止,由無止故觀亦不生,已如前說,故須雙修前安住止及新修觀,謂修觀後即於彼義而修寂止,故緣無我而能修成止觀雙運。

While this is so, if you perform only analytical meditation when cultivating insight after you have achieved serenity, your earlier serenity will be destroyed. Since it was not refreshed, serenity will be gone; thus, as explained earlier, insight also will not develop. Therefore, you must sustain the serenity that previously set up a condition of mental stability. Since you must also practice analytical meditation, both are necessary. Furthermore, in the practice of insight, at the conclusion of analytical meditation, you practice stabilizing meditation on that meaning. By doing this, you will achieve a union of serenity and insight focused upon selflessness.

《修次中篇》云﹕「《聖寶雲經》云﹕如是善巧諸過失已,為離一切諸戲論故,當於空性而修瑜伽。如是於空多修習已,若於何處令心流散令心欣樂,即於是處尋思自性了解為空。又於內心亦當尋思了解為空,次更尋思能了解心所有自性,亦知其空。由如是解而能悟入無相瑜伽,此顯要由尋思為先。悟入無相,顯然顯示非唯棄捨作意思惟及不以慧推求法性,而能悟入無分別性。」

The second of Kamalaśīla's 《Stages of Meditation》 says:

此論宣說,要先推求心散亂境及散亂心了達為空,尋求觀察能解空者,亦達其空,彼等皆是修空時修。

This passage states that when you investigate the places where your mind spreads and the mind which spreads there, you realize that they are empty; that when you search for or analyze the knowledge that they are empty, you realize that it is empty; and that those analyses are done during meditation on emptiness.

由其觀察了達為空,乃能悟入無相瑜伽,
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故若不以正理觀擇推求為先,如和尚許,唯攝散心棄捨作意,顯然不能悟入無相,或無分別。

It also says that the person who analyzes and realizes that they are empty will enter the yoga of signlessness. Therefore, it clearly shows the impossibility of what Ha-shang claimed—that by merely withdrawing your mind and eliminating bringing anything to mind, you can enter into a signless or nonconceptual state without first using rational analysis to search analytically.

故如前說,當於諸法以正理劍,破二我性令無塵許,於無我理引發定解。

Therefore, as I explained before, the sword of reasoning cuts through phenomena, revealing that they lack even a shred of the two selves, and brings forth certainty about selflessness.

如是若無二我實事,破我無事豈能實有。

So if a thing possessed of the two selves does not exist, then how could the nonexistence which is its negation be established in reality?

譬如若執無石女兒無事實有,必待先見石女與兒,若曾未見石女與兒,誰亦不說無實女兒而是實有。

The conception that the nonexistence that is the absence of the son of a barren woman really exists must be based on the observation of a barren woman and her son. If those two are never observed, then no one thinks to construct the expression, "The nonexistence of the son of a barren woman truly exists."

任於何處,若先未曾見實有事,則執實有無事分別亦終不生。

In the same way, when you see no truly existent thing anywhere at all, you also do not give rise to the conception that the nonexistence of that truly existent thing is something truly existent.

執相分別一切皆滅,以諸分別執實有者,皆是妄執有事無事而為實有,能徧既滅所徧亦滅,修次第中作彼說故。

Therefore, you stop all thoughts conceiving of signs, because if a thought conceives of true existence, it must be a thought that conceives of the true existence of either an existent or a nonexistent. So if the larger category is negated, then the subcategory is negated. This is what Kamalaśīla's 《Stages of Meditation》 says.

如是應於有事無事決定全無塵許實性引生定解,及當安住所決斷義,迭次而修,乃能引發無分別智。

Thus, to achieve the nonconceptual sublime wisdom, you alternate (1) developing certainty, profound certainty, that there is not even a particle of true existence in any thing or non-thing whatsoever, and (2) stabilizing your mind on the conclusion thereby reached.

非於境界全不觀察,唯攝作意所能引發,以不能斷諦實執故。

You cannot achieve such wisdom by simply constricting mental activity without any analysis of an object, because this approach does not make it possible to eliminate the conception of true existence.

唯於執有,不起分別,非是通達無諦實故。

This is because it is merely not thinking of true existence; it is not knowledge of the absence of true existence.

如是唯不分別有我非達無我,唯由修彼則於我執全無損故,故於實有及於二有不起分別,與達無實及無二我,應善分別最為切要。

In the same way, it is merely not thinking of a self, but is not knowledge of the lack of self, so cultivating it does not stop the conception of self. Therefore, you must distinguish between (1) not thinking about true existence or the existence of the two selves, and (2) knowing the lack of true existence or the nonexistence of the two selves. Remember this critical point.

◎第二斷諍。

3.2.2 Overcoming objections to that

若作是念,於無我義推求觀察,是分別心,從此能生無分別智實屬相違,因果二法須隨順故。

Objection: Since analytical discrimination of the meaning of selflessness is conceptual, it is contradictory that it should produce the nonconceptual sublime wisdom. This is because there must be harmony between an effect and its cause.

世尊於此並喻而答迦葉問品云﹕「迦葉,譬如兩樹為風振觸便有火生,其火生已還焚兩樹。迦葉,如是觀察生聖慧根,聖慧生已燒彼觀察。」

Reply: The Bhagavan himself spoke about this using an example. The Kãếyapa 《Chapter Sūtra》 says:
Kāśyapa, it is thus. For example, two trees are dragged against each other by the wind and from that a fire starts, burning the two trees. In the same way, Kāśyapa, if you have correct analytical discrimination, the power of a noble being's wisdom will emerge. With its emergence, correct analytical discrimination will itself be burned up.

此說觀察發生聖慧。

This means that the wisdom of a noble being emerges from analytical discrimination.

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《修次中篇》云﹕「彼由如是以慧觀察,若瑜伽師不執勝義諸法自性,爾時悟入無分別定,證一切法無自性性。若不修習以慧觀察諸法自性,唯一修習棄捨作意,終不能滅所有分別,終不能證無自性性,無慧光故。如世尊說,從觀察生如實智火,燒分別樹,猶如鑽木鑽出之火。」

Kamalaśīla's 《second Stages of Meditation》 says:
Thus, yogis analyze with wisdom and when they definitely do not apprehend the essence of anything ultimately, they enter into the nonconceptual concentration. They know that all phenomena lack essence. There are some whose meditation does not involve the use of wisdom to investigate the essence of things; they only cultivate the sheer and complete elimination of mental activity. Their conceptions never end and they never know the absence of essence because they lack the light of wisdom. Thus, when the fire which is a precise understanding of reality arises from correct analytical discrimination, then—as in the case of the fire from the friction of two sticks rubbed together—the wood of conceptual thought is burned up. This is what the Bhagavan said.

若不爾者,從有漏道,亦不應有無漏道生,亦無異生而得聖果,因果二法不相似故,如是白種發生青芽,從火生烟,從女生男,現有彼等無邊因果極不相似。

Otherwise, since it would be impossible for an uncontaminated path to arise from a contaminated path, an ordinary being could not attain the state of a noble being because of the dissimilarity between the cause and the effect. In the same way, it is evident that there are limitless cases of dissimilar causes and effects, such as the production of a green seedling from a gray seed, the production of smoke from fire, and the production of a male child from a woman.

又聖無分別智,是已現證二我執境空無我義,為生彼故現當思擇我執之境,通達彼無而善修習。

A noble being's nonconceptual sublime wisdom is perceptual knowledge of the meaning of selflessness—the emptiness of the object of the conception of the two selves. In order to develop that sort of wisdom at a higher stage, your meditation must now precisely analyze the object of the conception of self and realize that it does not exist.

彼雖亦是分別,然是無分別智極隨順之因,

Therefore, although this is conceptual, it is a cause which is very conducive to the nonconceptual sublime wisdom.

如前所引《三摩地王經》云﹕「若於諸法觀無我。」

As previously cited, the 《King of Concentrations Sūtra》 says:
If you analytically discriminate the lack of self in phenomena
And if you cultivate that precise analysis in meditation,
This will cause you to reach the goal, the attainment of nirvāna.
There is no peace through any other cause.

《修次下篇》云﹕「此修雖是分別為性,然是如理作意自性,故能出生無分別智,樂此智者當依彼修。」

Therefore, Kamalaśīla's 《third Stages of Meditation》 says:
Even though it has a conceptual nature,
its nature is one of proper mental activity.
Therefore, because it engenders the nonconceptual sublime wisdom,
those who seek the sublime wisdom should rely upon it.

若作是念,般若經說若於色等空無我行,亦是相行,故觀察空不應道理。

Objection: The Perfection of Wisdom sutras say that if one is involved in the idea that things such as forms are empty and selfless, then one is involved in signs. Therefore, analytical discrimination of emptiness is not tenable.

如是等類,是說於空執為實有,非說取空,前已廣說。

Reply: Such statements in sutras refer to holding emptiness to be truly existent; as I have explained frequently above, they do not refer to holding simply, "This is empty."

若不爾者,即彼經云﹕「菩薩摩訶薩,若行般若波羅蜜多,修習般若波羅蜜多,如是觀察如是思惟,何為般若波羅蜜多,即此般若波羅蜜多,是誰所有,若無何法,若不可得,是名般若波羅蜜多耶,若如是觀察如是思惟。」

Otherwise, those sūtras would not speak of analysis when cultivating the perfection of wisdom: A bodhisattva, a great being, who practices the perfection of wisdom and cultivates the perfection of wisdom should carefully investigate and definitely consider the following: What is this perfection of wisdom? Whose is this perfection of wisdom? Is the nonexistence and non-observation of any phenomenon the perfection of wisdom? When one carefully investigates and definitely considers this....

此說正修般若度時,當須觀察。般若心經問如何行甚深般若波羅蜜多,

And in answer to the question of how to practice the profound perfection of wisdom, the Heart Sūtra says,

答﹕「照見五蘊自性皆空。」

"Correctly regard even those five aggregates as empty of intrinsic nature."

《攝頌》亦
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云﹕「若為無為黑白法,慧析塵許不可得,於世說預慧度數。」

Also, the 《Verse Summary of the Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines》 says:
When wisdom destroys the conditioned and the unconditioned,
And the positive and negative, and not even a particle is observed,
Then this counts in the world as the perfection of wisdom.

此說以慧觀察諸法,雖微塵許見不可得預慧度數。

This means that you reach the perfection of wisdom when, having analyzed phenomena with wisdom, you see without regarding even a particle as ultimately real.

如此等類說須觀察,云何相違。

How can your assertion that conceptual analysis is a hindrance to insight not contradict these many statements about the need for precise investigation of such reasonings?

若不許爾,經說不應觀察諸法,有何道理。

Objection: I disagree with this approach. There are scriptural statements that one should not investigate phenomena. How do you account for this?

若如和尚說,一切分別皆繫生死,則念當請無分別教授及當修行無分別等,應許一切皆是繫縛,破彼邪執前已廣說。

Reply: If you, like Ha-Shang, claim that all thoughts whatsoever bind you in cyclic existence, then you must accept that you are bound in cyclic existence by all thoughts such as, "I have received personal instructions on the nonconceptual; I will meditate on this." I refuted this at length earlier.

故於諸法不應執實,是彼經義。

Thus, the meaning of scriptural passages which seem to say that you should not investigate is that you should not conceive of those things as truly existent.

又如於繩誤以為蛇起憂苦時,了知無蛇如心所執,能滅錯誤非餘方便,

Stopping the thought which conceives of true existence is like this illustration: If suffering arises through mistaking a rope for a snake, you overcome this error when you are certain that the snake does not exist as you had imagined. There is no other way.

於執實境,當以正因定知無實,修習彼義,乃能滅除執實分別,非唯攝錄執實之心,便能滅除。

Likewise, you must use a correct reason to be certain that the object that you had thought of as truly existent does not truly exist, and you must make yourself intimately familiar with this conclusion. You cannot stop the thought which conceives of true existence by simply withdrawing the mind that conceives of true existence.

又當受許執實為誤,若非錯誤無可破故。

Furthermore, you must agree that the conception of true existence is mistaken; if it were not mistaken, there would be no point in stopping it.

雖許心誤,若不了知無彼執境,其心錯誤云何能知,以誤為誤,唯由有無所執境故。

If you agree that this awareness is mistaken, then how are you to recognize that it is mistaken unless you recognize that the object held by it does not exist? For one can determine whether an awareness is mistaken only by whether an object exists as it is apprehended by that awareness.

又無執實如所執境,非為誓許便能成立,必待清淨能成教理。

A mere proclamation will not prove that the object does not exist as it is conceived to exist by the conception of true existence. So you rely on defect-free combinations of scripture and reason to prove it.

如是立已,決擇無實,次不分別實諦而住是我所許,故無分別須以觀慧觀察為先,非不分別便為滿足。

After you have done that, you arrive at a conclusion about the absence of true existence. You then stabilize your mind without conceiving of true existence; this is our position. Therefore, this meditation must be the kind of nonconceptual state that is preceded by the analysis of discriminating wisdom; simply being a nonconceptual state is not enough.

當知如《修次下篇》云﹕「故正法中,凡說無念及無作意,當知皆以審察為先。何以故,由審觀察乃能無念,能無作意,非餘能爾。」

You should understand this in accordance with what is said in Kamalaśīla's 《third Stages of Meditation》:
Thus, see that in the scriptures of the excellent teaching, correct analytical discrimination precedes the absence of mindfulness and the absence of mental activity because it is only correct analytical discrimination that can create the absence of mindfulness and the absence of mental activity. There is no other way.

又云。「毘缽舍那,以審觀察而為體性。」《聖寶雲經》《解深密》等,皆如是說。

And:
Scriptures such as the 《Cloud of Jewels Sūtra》 and the 《Sutra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》 state that insight has the nature of correct analytical discrimination.

如《寶雲經》云﹕「毘缽舍那善思擇故,了達無性悟入無相。」

The 《Cloud of Jewels Sūtra》 says:
After you have investigated with insight, you know the absence of essence. This is entry into signlessness.

《聖楞伽經》云﹕「大慧,以慧推察,乃不分別自相共相,名為一切諸法無性。」

The 《Descent into Lanka Sūtra》 says:
Mahāmati, because specific and general characteristics are not known when mentally investigated, it is said that all phenomena lack essence.

設若不須審觀察者,世尊如是彼彼經中,宣說多
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種審諦觀察,皆與相違。

Failing to perform correct analytical discrimination would contradict the many pronouncements about correct analytical discrimination which the Bhagavan made in these sūtras.

故理當說我慧下劣,精進微少,未能周徧尋求多聞,然佛世尊讚歎多聞,故一切時不應謗彼。

Thus, it is acceptable to say, "I have little wisdom, little effort, and I am not capable of pursuing extensive study." But since the Bhagavan praised extensive study, it is not right to abandon it forever.

如是經說,從色乃至一切種智心皆不住者,謂不應執有實可住境。

Similarly, the statements that the mind should not remain on anything, from form to omniscience, mean that it is not appropriate to hold that those phenomena truly exist as places for the mind to remain.

若不爾者,於六度等亦如是說,則亦不應住六度等,不應執實而安住者,亦如前說。

Otherwise, since even things like the six perfections are spoken of in that way, it would mean that the mind must not remain even on them. As explained earlier, it is not appropriate to remain within the conception of things as truly existent.

要先了解彼等無實,凡經宣說,如是無住及無分別,當知一切皆以破除諸境自性,或諦實性觀察為先。

There are statements in sutras that by relying on the knowledge that phenomena do not truly exist, you will not remain with and not conceive of such phenomena. Know that all such statements refer only to the preceding correct analytical discrimination which refutes that objects intrinsically or truly exist.

故經說為不可思議,超心境等,是為破除諸增上慢,唯以聞思便能證得甚深空義,顯示彼義唯聖內證,餘人難思。

Therefore, scriptural references to things such as the inconceivable, or to what is beyond awareness, are made to prevent the conceit that the profound can be known by mere study or reflection; those are objects of a noble being's individual self-knowledge. Therefore, those statements mean that it is inconceivable, etc. to the minds of others who are not noble beings,

又為破除,於甚深義妄執實有非理思惟,故作彼說,當知非破以正觀慧如理觀察。

and their purpose is to stop the incorrect idea that the profound truly exists. Recognize that they do not refute proper analysis by discriminating wisdom.

如《修次下篇》云﹕「如是若聞彼彼經中難思等語,謂若有思,唯以聞思能證真實,彼彼經中為破如是增上慢故,顯示諸法唯各內證。又當了知,是為破除非理思惟,非為破除審正觀察。若不爾者,違多教理。」

Kamalaśīla's 《third Stages of Meditation》 says:
So wherever you hear words such as "inconceivable," they are for the purpose of stopping the inflated sense of pride of those who think that reality is known only by mere study and reflection. Such expressions indicate that phenomena are to be understood with the individual self-knowledge of a noble being. Understand this as a correct refutation of an incorrect idea; these statements are not refuting correct analytical discrimination. Otherwise, it would contradict a great many reasonings and scriptures.

違多教者,如迦葉品云﹕「迦葉,云何中道觀察諸法?迦葉,謂若於法觀察無我,及無有情,無命,無養,無士夫,無補特伽羅,無意生,無儒童,迦葉,是名中道觀察諸法,」與如是等悉皆相違。

How would it contradict many scriptures? It would contradict such statements as this from the Kāśyapa Chapter Sutra:
Kāśyapa, what is correct analytical discrimination of phenomena on the middle way? Kāśyapa, where there is analytical discrimination of the nonexistence of a self and analytical discrimination of the nonexistence of a sentient being, a living being, anourished being, a creature, a person, a human being, a human—Kāśyapa, this is called the correct analytical discrimination of phenomena on the middle way.

《修次初篇》云﹕「入無分別陀羅尼云,由無作意斷色等相。此中密意,以慧觀察見無可得,名無作意,非說全不作意。如無想定暫伏作意,非能斷除無始時來色等愛著。」

Kamalaśīla's 《first Stages of Meditation》 says:
The Formula for Entering the Nonconceptual says, "You get rid of the signs of form and such by not applying the mind." What about this? Again, the intended meaning is that when using wisdom to investigate, you do not apply your mind to that which is unobservable. It is not that you strictly have no mental activity. In the meditative absorption of non-discrimination you do simply eliminate mental activity, but this does not get rid of the beginningless attachment to things such as form.

此論師所造,此陀羅尼釋中,亦顯然解釋。

This is also clear in this master's commentary on that formula.

總於大乘,
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除聖龍猛及聖無著,造論解釋二見之外,更無餘見。

In brief, in the Mahāyāna there is no view other than the two kinds of view explained extensively in the texts of the noble Nāgārjuna and the noble Asanga.

印藏智者,亦定依止此二所解二見隨一,故此二派隨一之見,各如論說,當善尋求。

It is evident that the excellent scholars and adepts of India and Tibet definitely rely on one or the other of the two views as explained by those two masters. So there is no doubt that you must seek the view of one or the other of these two masters, as presented by their respective texts.

依聖父子論尋求之理,如前廣說。

I previously explained the procedure for seeking the view based on the texts of the noble father and his spiritual son [Nāgārjuna and Aryadeva].

若隨聖無著行,謂於真實異體二取,一切本空,然於愚夫現似異體,如其所現執境為實,名徧計執,於依他上以正教理,破除一切其無二義,名圓成實,於此當得堅固定解。

According to the noble Asanga, objects and subjects are, in reality, completely devoid of being different substantial entities, yet appear as different substantial entities to childish beings. Such appearances are the imaginary objects which childish beings conceive to truly exist just as they appear. Through scripture and reasoning, you find a firm ascertainment of the perfectly real, the nonduality which is the total negation of the imaginary in relation to the contingent.

次當安住彼見之上,雙修止住及修觀察。

It is then necessary to perform both stabilizing meditation on that view and meditation that analyzes it with discrimination.

若僅獲得如斯見解,正修之時不住於見,唯不分別亦非修空。

Even with such an understanding of the view, if during meditation you merely enter a nonconceptual state, and do not stabilize your mind on that view, then this does not constitute meditation on emptiness.

決擇彼宗正見之理,及於已決擇義,別修止觀,合修雙運。《般若波羅蜜多教授論》中,最為明顯,故當觀閱。

You should look at Ratnākaraśānti's Instructions for the Perfection of Wisdom, as it is the clearest on this system's methods for determining the view, its methods for separately sustaining serenity and insight with regard to what you have determined, and its methods for entering the union of serenity and insight.

若善解此宗,能如論說而正修習,亦極希有。

It is wonderful to know this system well and to meditate in accordance with what is found in its scriptures.

大乘經論,下至總略顯甚深義,其數極多,然未說者,亦復不少,於未說中當引已說,於未廣說當引廣說。

Each Mahāyāna scripture—from summaries to the most extensive texts—gives a great many teachings on the profound meaning, but also leaves many things out. So you must draw points that are not taught in certain texts from other texts that do teach them, and you must draw points that are not taught extensively in certain texts from other texts where they are taught extensively.

如是廣大行品,當知亦爾。

You should understand that this is true for the category of the vast bodhisattva deeds as well.

若無甚深或無廣大,僅於一分,不應執為如是便足,故多經論,於示道師圓滿德相,密意說云「善一切乘。」

A partial path, in which either the profound or the vast is missing, cannot be considered complete. This is why it is often said that you must be skilled in all vehicles in order to be a guru who is fully qualified to teach the path.

◎第三略攝修要。

3.2.3 A summary of the key points for sustaining insight and serenity

若如前說,已得了義見者,於能發生我我所執,我我所事,

As I have explained, when you have found the view of what has definitive meaning, you will have determined that the self and that which belongs to the self do not intrinsically exist in the basis in relation to which the conceptions of "I" and "mine" arise.

如前決擇無自性時,應以觀慧數數觀察,次於彼義發起定解,餘勢當間雜修,持心不散與觀慧思擇。

And just as when you initially made this determination, you continue to use extensive analysis with discriminating wisdom to bring the force of certainty to bear upon that conclusion. You alternate between stabilizing meditation—which stays with that conclusion without Scattering—and analysis with discriminating wisdom.

爾時,若由多觀擇故,住分減少,當多修止令生住分。

At that time, if stability decreases due to excessive analytical meditation, do more stabilizing meditation and restore stability.

若由多修止力,住分增盛不樂觀察,若不
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觀察,於真實義不生堅固猛利定解。

As stability increases under the influence of extensive stabilizing meditation, if you lose interest in analysis and thus fail to analyze, then your ascertainment of reality will not become firm and powerful.

若未生彼,則不能害定解違品增益我執,故當多修觀察,令其止觀二分平均。

In the absence of a firm and powerful ascertainment of reality, you will not do even the slightest damage to the countervailing superimpositions which conceive of the existence of the two selves. Therefore, cultivate a balance of serenity and insight by doing extensive analytical meditation.

如《修次下篇》云﹕「若時多修毘鉢舍那,智慧增上,由奢摩他力微劣故,如風中燭令心搖動,不能明了見真實義,故於爾時當修正奢摩他。

Kamalaśīla's 《third Stages of Meditation》 says: When, through cultivating insight, wisdom becomes extremely strong, serenity decreases. Therefore, like a flame placed in the wind, the mind wavers so that it does not see reality very clearly. For that reason, you should then cultivate serenity.

若正奢摩他勢力增上,如睡眠人,不能明了見真實義,故於爾時當修智慧。」

Also, when serenity becomes very strong, you will not see reality very clearly, like a person who is asleep. Therefore, you should then cultivate wisdom.

加行結行及未修間,應如何行,當知如同下士時說。

Understand that the way to prepare for a session, the way to conclude a session, and the way to conduct yourself between sessions are just as I explained them in the section on persons of small capacity.

如是修習無我義時,沉掉生起如何了知,為斷沉掉修念正知,得無沉掉,平等等捨任運轉時,緩功用等,當知同前奢摩他時所說,船若波羅蜜多教授論說,於所修境,修奢摩他令起輕安。

In the section on serenity, I explained how to identify laxity and excitement, how to use mindfulness and vigilance to eliminate them, and how to relax your efforts after you have attained an equanimity which operates naturally, without being unbalanced by laxity or excitement. Realize that all of this is the same when meditating on selflessness. Ratnākaraśānti's Instructions for the 《Perfection of Wisdom》 says that sustaining serenity with respect to the object of meditation produces pliancy,

又於彼境,觀察修習毘鉢舍那引發輕安。各別修已次乃雙運。

and that the analytical meditation of insight into that object also produces pliancy. After you have established those two separately, you then unite them.

若如此說,非定一座連修止觀,是許亦可別別分修。

According to this text, it is not required that you do analysis and stabilization within one continuous session. Hence, Ratnākaraśānti explains that it is acceptable to do them in separate sessions.

此中要者,謂內無明如何增益,須破其執,彼相違品,謂自性空。於此空上應當引起猛利定解,而修空性。

Here the important point is that by eradicating the cognitive process in which ignorance reifies things, you produce a powerful certainty about emptiness—the absence of intrinsic existence, the opposite of this reification—and that you must then meditate on emptiness.

若於我執及無明執,全未破壞別修餘空,於二我執毫無所損,

If you fail to refute the conceptions of self and the cognitive processes of ignorance, and you put emptiness off to one corner, then your meditation will do nothing to hinder the two conceptions of self.

故諸先覺數數說如「東門有鬼,西門送俑」,現見實爾。

Earlier teachers often said, "It is like sending an effigy to the western door to ward off a demon at the eastern door." It is evident that this is quite true.

上述此等唯粗概要,其正修時微細得失,更須親近聰叡知識及自內修而當了知,故不廣說。

The things that I have said here are only a rough explanation. To understand the fine points of what is advantageous and disadvantageous when meditating, you must rely on Wise teachers, and you have to use your own meditative experience. Therefore, I will not elaborate.

如是修法,是依先覺道次教授,略為增廣,

Regarding these meditations, I have taken the earlier instructions on the stages of the path as a foundation and then enlarged upon them.

如博朵瓦《寶瓶論》云﹕「有於聞思之時,正理決擇無性,修唯修無分別,如是非真對治,別修無關空故。是故修時亦以緣起離一異等,修何即
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當觀察,亦略無分別住,此修能治煩惱,覺窩弟子所許,欲行到彼岸法,彼即修慧方便。又當先修人空,次法如是隨轉。」

One of those early instructions, Bo-do-wa's 《Little Digest of Instructions》, says:
Some say that you determine the absence of intrinsic existence
Using reason during study and reflection,
But meditate strictly without conceptual thought at the time of meditation.
If this were so, then this would be an emptiness disconnected from that of study and reflection.
And, because of being meditated upon in a separate way, it would not be a remedy.
Therefore, even at the time of meditation
Analytically discriminate by using whatever you are accustomed to—
Such as the lack of being single or plural, or dependentarising—
And then stabilize your mind without even the slightest discursive thought.
If you meditate in that way, it will remedy the afflictions.
For those who wish to follow the Sole Deity [Atisha]
And for those who wish to practice the system of the perfections,
This is the way to cultivate wisdom.
By first becoming accustomed to the selflessness of the person,
You can then proceed in this way.

覺窩亦云﹕「由何能證空,如來記龍猛,現見法性諦,弟子名月稱,依彼傳教授,能證法性諦。」

Also, Atisha [in his Introduction to the Two Truths] said:
Who understood emptiness?
Candrakirti, the disciple of Nāgārjuna–
Who was prophesied by the Tathâgata
And who saw the true reality.
One will learn the true reality
From instructions which derive from him.

其導引法,如覺窩所造中觀教授說先修觀察,次住所觀之義間雜而修。此與蓮華戒論師宗義無別。

This teaching is like what Atisha says in his Madhyamaka Instructions; he says that you alternate between analytical meditation and meditation which stabilizes on the conclusions of such analysis. There is no difference between this and the system of the master Kamalaśīla.

又如前說《入中論》,《中觀心論》,寂天論師等,意趣皆爾。慈氏諸論。聖無著論,亦多宣說。

As explained before, the intended meanings of Candrakirti's 《Commentary on the "Middle Way"》, Bhavaviveka's 《Heart of the Middle Way》, and the writings of master Santideva are also the same. This is also explained many times in the teachings of Maitreya and in the texts of the noble Asafiga,

住持彼宗無倒聰叡寂靜論師,於《般若波羅蜜多教授論》中,解釋尤顯。

and it is clearly explained in the Instructions for the 《Perfection of Wisdom》 by the scholar Ratnākaraśānti, who considers Asanga's system to be accurate.

故修毘鉢舍那法,龍猛無著兩派所傳,論典教授皆相隨順。

Therefore, it is evident that the texts and instructions deriving from Nāgārjuna and Asanga agree about the way to sustain insight.

◎第四修觀成就之量。

4 The measure of achieving insight through meditation

如是觀慧觀擇修習,乃至未生前說輕安,是名隨順毘鉢舍那,生輕安已乃是真實毘鉢舍那。

When you meditate using discriminating wisdom to analyze in this way, you have an approximation of insight until you develop such pliancy as I explained above; once you develop pliancy, it is genuine insight.

輕安體相生起道理,俱如前說。

The nature of pliancy and the way to produce it are as I explained them above.

又奢摩他先得未失,亦有由彼所引輕安,故非略有輕安便足。

Pliancy is also induced by a previously attained and continuing serenity, so insight is not simply a matter of having pliancy.

若爾云何,謂修觀察,若由自力能引輕安,此後乃名毘鉢舍那。緣盡所有性及緣如所有性,二種毘鉢舍那,得限皆同。

What is it? Insight is when the power of analytical meditation itself is able to induce pliancy. In this regard, insight observing the diversity and insight observing the real nature are alike.

如《解深密經》云﹕「世尊,若諸菩薩乃至未得身心輕安,於如所思所有諸法,內三摩地所行影相作意思惟,如是作意當名何等?

Thus, the 《Sutra Unravelling the Intended Meaning》 says:
Bhagavan, when bodhisattvas who have not attained mental and physical pliancy attend internally to an object of concentration which is an image based on how they have understood those conventional phenomena in deep reflection, what is that attention called?

慈氏,非毘鉢舍那,是隨順毘鉢舍那勝解相應作意。」

Maitreya, it is not insight; you can say that they have a conviction that is an approximation of insight.

《般若波羅蜜多教授論》云﹕「彼由獲得身心輕安為所依止,即於如所善思惟義,內三摩地所行影像,勝解觀察,乃至未生身
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心輕安,是名隨順毘鉢舍那所有作意。若時生起,爾時即名毘鉢舍那。」

Also, Ratnākaraśānti's 《Instructions for the Perfection of Wisdom》says:
Thus, the attainment of insight lies in the attainment of physical and mental pliancy. As you have a strong interest in the object of internal concentration, which is an image based upon this same object as you have reflected upon it, you will carry out analytical discrimination. Until you develop physical and mental pliancy, this attention is an approximation of insight; when pliancy does develop, this attention is insight.

此說緣於盡所有性成奢摩他,毘鉢舍那及雙運等,與緣如所有性相同。

This means that in meditation on the diversity of conventional phenomena, serenity, insight, and the way they are united are comparable to what is done in meditation on the real nature.

若由自力能引輕安,則亦能引心一境性,故由觀慧思擇自力而能引生心一境性,是由已成正奢摩他所有功德。

When analysis itself can induce pliancy, it can also induce one-pointed focus. Therefore, the advantage of having already attained serenity is that the analytical meditation of discrimination can itself induce this one-pointed focus.

如是善成奢摩他者,由修觀察亦能助伴正奢摩他,故不應執凡修觀察,住分損減。

So for those who have well-established serenity, even analytical meditation helps serenity. Thus, do not think, "If I carry out the analytical meditation of discrimination, my stability will diminish."

又成不成緣如所有止修觀修毘鉢舍那,謂由是否隨於一種無我正見,獲得無謬清淨了解緣彼而修,而為判別,非餘能判。

Your meditation will constitute an insight that combines stabilizing meditation and analytical meditation on the real nature only when you meet the standard of having found an authentic, accurate understanding of the philosophical view of either of the two selflessnesses and after having focused and meditated upon this. This is what distinguishes genuine insight; it cannot be distinguished by any other means.

為由何等不能判別,謂修習故,心境二相粗分皆滅,如淨虛空,心具顯了澄淨差別,如無風燭不動久住。

What kinds of things do not distinguish it? Meditation on any object may stop the coarse perception of the dualistic appearance of object and subject, leaving your mind like a stainless sky; your mind may be endowed with qualities of knowledge, clarity, and limpidity. Like a flame undisturbed by wind, the mind may remain steady for a long time;

意識所現內外諸相皆覺如虹或如薄烟,久住彼相。

external and internal objects may appear to your mind like rainbows or wispy smoke, and may continue to appear that way for a long time.

又於意識現起一切所取境界,注心觀察皆不忍觀漸趣隱沒。

When you focus attention on any object that appears before the mental consciousness, it may not be able to stand even the slightest attention, and then your serenity is restored.

又彼先從粗相外境,色聲等上,如是顯現。次漸修習,內心了別領觸等相亦漸離脫,於彼住心皆不堪住,雖有彼等境相現起,然非獲得,通達無二真實正見。

At first, coarse external objects such as forms and sounds do appear, but as you grow accustomed to this meditative state, eventually it seems that understandings and experiences of the sort which you formerly possessed have been expelled; when you focus your mind on them, they disappear without bearing the slightest attention. Such experiences occur, but cannot be considered cases of finding the view which knows the reality beyond the two extremes;

又彼諸境,現為杳茫,亦全不能立為通達中觀所說如幻之義,以於正見心未趣向久修住分,皆有如是境相現故。

nor can these hazy, indistinct appearances be at all considered as "illusion-like" in the Madhyamaka sense. This is because many such things appear when you sustain stability for a long time, even when your mind is not directed toward the view.

如幻之義要如前說,依止二量乃能現起,一決斷無性理智定解,二顯現難遮名言量成。

As I explained before, the sense of "illusion-like" requires that an appearance be based on two factors: (1) the certainty of a reasoning consciousness which has concluded that phenomena lack essence, and (2) conventional valid cognition's undeniable establishment of appearances.

色等諸境於意識前,現為薄淨似虹霓者,是離所觸礙著之相,及雖無礙而甚明顯二相聚合。

Things such as forms may appear to your mind under a sheer and diaphanous aspect, like a rainbow; this is simply the combination of the absence of any tangible object and a glimmering appearance which occurs despite the absence of anything tangible.

此定解中。全無無性真定解故,是將所破自
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性,與質礙觸執二為一,假名無自性故。

Thus, since this sort of ascertainment lacks even the slightest certainty about the absence of intrinsic existence, it is not right to consider this an illusion-like appearance, because to do so is to call the tangible "intrinsic existence," treating two objects of negation—intrinsic existence and the tangible—as though they were the same.

若不爾者,許彼即是中觀所說如幻妄義,見如虹霓薄煙之事,應不於彼起諸分別,執有自性,以於彼事所起定解,即是定解境無性故。

Otherwise, if you did claim that the Madhyamaka sense of illusion and falsity is something of this sort, then when a rainbow and wispy smoke are taken as the substrata, the idea that they intrinsically exist would never occur, because according to your approach the very ascertainment of the substrata would be an ascertainment that they appear but lack intrinsic existence,

又凡取其質礙觸事,應不於彼引無性解,以取彼事即是妄執有自性故。

Also when the tangible is itself taken as the substratum, this approach would not lead to the ascertainment that the tangible lacks intrinsic existence, because according to your approach the ascertainment of the substratum is a conception of intrinsic existence.

是故色等如是現時,現為微薄澄淨等相,非能破壞執實之境,故亦非是如幻之義。

Therefore, when form and such appear in that way, this is not what it means to appear like an illusion, because there is not even the slightest refutation of the object of the misconception which thinks that this sheer and diaphanous appearance is the mode of being, or ontological status, of those objects.

若已先得清淨正見未忘失者,容現如幻,前已廣說。

As I explained, illusion-like appearance refers to what appears to someone who has previously found, and who has not forgotten, the authentic view.

善知識阿蘭若師所傳諸道次中,關于引生空解道理,曾作是說﹕

The stages of the path tradition deriving from Geshe Gön-ba-wa describes how to generate that understanding of emptiness as follows:

「先修補特伽羅無我,次於法無我義,若念正知攝持而修,若時太久,念知難攝,時沉時掉利益極小,故以上午下午初夜後夜四座之中各分四座,一晝夜中修十六座,尚覺明了感觸之時,即當止息。

First, you meditate on the selflessness of the person. You then meditate on the meaning of the selflessness of objects, bringing mindfulness and vigilance to bear. In a long session, failure to use mindfulness will cause you to fluctuate between laxity and excitement, and thus there will be little benefit. Therefore, doing four sessions in each of the four periods— morning, evening, dusk, and dawn—you meditate in sixteen sessions per day. When you think that the object is becoming clear or that you are having some experience, you should stop.

由如是修覺修未久,然觀時間日時速逝,是攝心相。

When you meditate in this way, and then, supposing that you have not been meditating long, check the time and see that the night or day have been foreshortened, this means that the mind has linked to its object.

若覺久修觀時未度,是未攝心,

If you check the time supposing that you have been meditating a very long time and see that no time has passed, this means that your mind is not linked to its object.

攝持心時煩惱輕微,自覺一生似無睡眠,次能一座經上午等。

When the mind is linked to its object, afflictions diminish in your mind, and you wonder whether you will ever need to sleep again. When you are successful in each session of the day and night,

爾時生定能具四相,一無分別,謂住定時,雖息出入皆不覺知。息及尋思至極微細,

your concentration will develop four characteristics: (1) non-discursiveness—when you are inequipoise, you will not feel the movement of inhalation and exhalation, and your breath and thought will become very subtle;

二明了,謂與秋季午時空界明了無別。

(2) brightness—it will be just like the brightness of the sky at noontime in autumn;

三澄淨,謂澄如杯中,注以淨水置日光下。

(3) limpidity—it will be like the clarity you see when you pour water into a clear metal cup and put it in the sun; and

四微細,謂住前三相之中,觀外諸法細如毛端了了可見。

(4) subtlety—watching from within the condition that has the former three characteristics, you see what happens to a fraction of a split hair-tip.

如是隨順無分別智,然若觀待無分別智,則此自性仍是分別,說名顛倒。

This approximates the creation of nonconceptual wisdom. As compared to actual nonconceptual wisdom, its nature is conceptual; it is therefore said to be mistaken.

《辨中邊論》云﹕隨順為顛倒。」

This explains what is stated in Maitreya's 《Separation of the Middle from the Extremes》, "The approximation is mistaken."

如《辨中邊論》,說諸異生修習空性,其最善者,亦當立為隨順顛倒,故
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雖未生所餘眾相,若修前說無謬正見,是名修習無我之義。

According to what is said in the 《Separation of the Middle from the Extremes》, even the most auspicious meditation on emptiness by an ordinary being is an approximation and must be considered mistaken. When you meditate on the meaning of the accurate view as explained above, then even though the other characteristics have not arisen, this is meditation on the meaning of selflessness.

若未能修決擇無謬正見之義,縱有四相不能立為修諸了義,是故是否修如所有義,如前所說。

If you do not meditate on the meaning of the view, accurately determined, then even if the four characteristics arise, it cannot be considered meditation on the definitive meaning. Therefore, whether something is a meditation on the meaning of the real nature is determined as I explained above.

如修彼故,後現如幻亦如前說,應當了知。

The way that things appear as illusions after meditation on that real nature should be understood in accordance with what I explained above.

◎第三止觀雙運法。

(iii) How to unite serenity and insight

如前成就止觀量時所說,若先未得止觀二法,無可雙運,必須先得止觀二法。

As I explained in the sections on the standards for achieving serenity and insight, if you do not achieve them, then there will not be anything to unite. Therefore, in order to unite them, you must definitely attain the two.

此復初得毘鉢舍那即得雙運,其中道理,謂依先得奢摩他故,修正觀察。論於此中亦說漸生力勵轉等四種作意。

Also, from the time that you first attain insight, you will have that union. So it is said that the way to attain that union is to perform analytical meditation based upon earlier serenity, sequentially developing the four attentions—such as tight focus—here at the time of insight.

若時生起,如前所說第四作意即成雙運,此謂修習觀察之後,雜修安住,若得住相如前奢摩他時所得,則成雙運。

Thus, when you have developed the fourth attention [spontaneous focus] as explained above, this constitutes union. Also, at the end of analytical meditation, you practice and sustain stabilizing meditation; it is union when the serenity thus attained becomes stabilizing meditation of this kind.

如《聲聞地》云﹕「齊何當言奢摩他毘鉢舍那,二種和合平等俱轉,由此說名雙運轉道?

Thus, Asanga's 《Sravaka Levels》 says:
How do you combine and balance serenity and insight? And why is it called a path of union?

答﹕若有獲得九相心住中,第九相心住謂三摩呬多,彼用如是圓滿三摩地為所依止。

It is said that it is reached through the nine mental states. Based on having attained the ninth, equipoise, and having fully achieved concentration,

於觀法中修增上慧,彼於爾時由觀法故。任運轉道無功用轉。

you apply yourself to the higher wisdom—the differentiation of phenomena. At that time, you naturally and effortlessly enter the path of differentiating phenomena.

如奢摩他道不由加行,毘鉢舍那清淨鮮白,隨奢摩他調柔攝受,

Because the path of serenity is unencumbered by striving, insight is pure, clean, comes after serenity, and is fully suffused with delight.

齊此名為奢摩他毘鉢舍那,二種和合平等俱轉,由此名為奢摩他毘鉢舍那,雙運轉道。」

Therefore, your serenity and insight combine and are balanced; this is called the path of the union of serenity and insight.

《修次下篇》云﹕「若時由其遠離沉掉平等俱轉,任運轉故,於真實義心最明了,爾時當緩功用而修等捨,當知爾時是名成就奢摩他毘鉢舍那,雙運轉道。」

Kamalaśīla's 《third Stages of Meditation》 says:
Through being isolated from laxity and excitement, your mind becomes balanced and operates naturally. When this makes your mind extremely clear about reality, you achieve equanimity by easing your effort. Understand that you have then achieved the path of the union of serenity and insight.

何故彼名雙運轉道?

Why is this called "union"?

答﹕由未雙得
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止觀之前,唯以觀慧修觀察力,不能引生無分別住,止修觀修必須各別功用修習,得二品已,即以觀慧觀察之力,便能引生正奢摩他,故名雙運。

Prior to attaining it, the analytical meditation of discrimination cannot by itself bring about the stability of non-discursiveness. Therefore, you must work at cultivating analytical meditation and stabilizing meditation separately. Upon attaining both, the activity of the analytical meditation of discrimination can itself bring about serenity. Therefore, it is called union.

此中觀察,即是毘鉢舍那。觀後安住即奢摩他,其殊勝者謂緣空性。

Also, analysis at this point is insight. The stability at the end of analysis is a special serenity observing emptiness.

《般若波羅蜜多教授論》云﹕「從是之後,即緣有分別影像,若時此心無間無缺,作意相續,雙證二品,爾時說名雙運轉道。其奢摩他毘鉢舍那,是名為雙運,謂具足更互繫縛而轉。」

Ratnākaraśānti's 《Instructions for the Perfection of Wisdom》 says:
Thereafter, the mind observes that discursive image. When that mind experiences both serenity and insight in a continuous and uninterrupted stream of attention, then this is called the path of union of serenity and insight. Serenity and insight are a pair; connection means possessing each other; they operate bound to each other.

無間缺者,謂觀察後不須別修無分別住,即由觀修,便能引生無分別住。

"Uninterrupted" means that after you finish the analytical meditation itself, you do not have to stabilize your mind in a non-discursive state, but your analytical meditation itself brings about non-discursiveness.

證二品者,謂緣無分別影相正奢摩他,及緣有分別影相毘鉢舍那,二品俱證,然非同時,謂即觀修作意無間相續而證。

"Experiences both" means that you experience both serenity which observes a non-discursive image and insight which observes a discursive image. They are not simultaneous, but you experience them within a continuous process, without interruption of your meditative attention.

若爾,前說成就奢摩他後,即由觀慧修習觀察能引住分,豈不相違?

Question: Is it not contradictory to explain that, after previously achieving serenity, you use the analytical meditation of discrimination to establish stability?

答﹕若未成就奢摩他前,數數觀察雜修止相,定不能成正奢摩他。

Reply: If, prior to achieving serenity, you repeatedly alternate between analysis and post-analytical stabilization, then it will be impossible to achieve serenity.

若已獲得奢摩他後,如是雜修正奢摩他答可得成,前文為顯如是差別,故不相違。

Doing such meditation after reaching serenity indicates that you are achieving an enhanced serenity. Therefore, there is no contradiction.

又將成就毘鉢舍那,其前無間由觀察修,有時能引專注一趣,前亦思彼。

Moreover, there is one special case to consider: The analytical meditation immediately preceding the achievement of insight can induce one-pointed focus.

今此宣說毘鉢舍那未成之前,以觀察修不能引生無分別者,除彼例外,意取其前未能成時。

I did explain above that it is impossible to establish serenity if, prior to achieving insight, you repeatedly alternate between analysis and post-analytical stabilization, and I explained that after you reach serenity, analytical meditation cannot induce non-discursiveness. I made these explanations in terms of the situation prior to the attaining of insight, leaving aside the exceptional case of analysis at the inception of insight.

總其未成奢摩他前。觀察之後雜修止相,不能成就正奢摩他。

In brief, prior to achieving serenity, it is impossible to reach serenity by doing stabilizing meditation in alternation, stabilizing your mind at the conclusion of analysis.

若已成就奢摩他後,毘鉢舍那未成之前,觀察自力不能引發堅穩安住專注一趣,故以觀慧數數觀察,即由觀察而能引得堅穩住者,要得毘鉢舍那乃
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有,故亦從此建立雙運。

Once serenity is established, but prior to achieving insight, analytical meditation cannot itself induce a solid, one-pointed stability. Therefore, reaching solid stability through analysis—extensive analysis by discriminating wisdom—comes about when insight is achieved; thus the union of insight and serenity is also posited at that point.

是故唯於未壞堅穩無分別住,兼能觀察無我空義,猶如小魚游安靜水,不當誤為止觀雙運。

So do not mistake the union of serenity and insight for a composite in which wisdom can analytically discriminate the meaning of selflessness from within an essentially unchanging non-discursive state of solid stability, like a small fish moving beneath still water without disturbing it.

如是止觀雙運之理,應如彼等清淨論典所說而知,餘增益說,非可憑信。由此等門而修止觀,雖尚可分眾多差別,然恐文繁故不多述。

Know how to unite serenity and insight according to what appears in the original texts. Do not put confidence in explanations derived from anything else. From the viewpoint of these Indian texts, it would seem that I must distinguish the many features of how you sustain serenity and insight in meditation. But I am wary of being long-winded, so I will write no more.

-

Summary and Conclusion.

◎今當略說道之總義,謂於最初道之根本,即是親近知識道理,故於彼上當善修鍊。

Now I will give a brief summation of the general meaning of the path. At the outset, the root of the path derives from your reliance upon a teacher, so consider this seriously.

次於暇身,若起真實取心要欲,彼從內策令恆修行,為生彼故當修暇滿。

Then, once you have developed an uncontrived desire to take advantage of your leisure, this desire will spur you to practice continually. Therefore, in order to develop this, meditate on the topics connected with leisure and opportunity.

次若未滅求現法心,則於後世不能發生猛利希求,故當勤修人身無常,不能久住,死後流轉惡趣道理。

Unless you then stop the various sentiments which seek the aims of this life, you will not diligently seek the aims of future lives. So work at meditating on how the body you have is impermanent in the sense that it will not last for long, and on how after death you will wander in the miserable realms.

爾時由生真心念畏,便能誠信三寶功德,安住皈依不共律儀學其應學。

At that time, by creating a genuine awareness which is mindful of the frights of the miserable realms, build certainty from the depths of your heart about the qualities of the three refuges. Be constant in the common vow of going for refuge and train in its precepts.

次於業果當由多門引發堅固深忍信解,是為一切白法根本,勤修十善滅十不善,相續轉趣四力之道。

Then, from a range of perspectives develop faith, in the sense of conviction, in karma and its effects—this being the great foundation of all positive qualities. Make this faith firm. Strive to cultivate the ten virtues and to turn away from the ten nonvirtues, and always stay within the path of the four powers.

如是善修下士法已,當多思惟,若總若別生死過患,總於生死令心厭捨。

When you have thus trained well in the teachings associated with a person of small capacity and have made this practice firm, you should contemplate often the general and specific faults of cyclic existence, and in general turn your mind away from cyclic existence as much as you can.

次觀生死從何因生,當識煩惱及業自性,發起真實樂斷之欲,便於真能解脫生死三學總道,能引定解,特於所受別解脫戒,當勤修學。

Then, having identified the nature of karma and the afflictions—the causes from which cyclic existence arises—create an authentic desire to eliminate them. Develop broad certainty about the path that liberates you from cyclic existence, i.e., the three trainings, and particularly make effort at whichever of the vows of individual liberation you have taken.

如是善學中士法已,作意思惟,如自墮落三有苦海,眾生皆爾,應當勤修慈悲為本大菩提心,必令生起。

When you have thus trained well in the teachings associated with a person of medium capacity and have made this practice firm, consider the fact that just as you yourself have fallen into the ocean of cyclic existence, so have all beings, your mothers. Train in the spirit of enlightenment which is rooted in love and compassion, and strive to develop this as much as you can.

若無此心,其六度行二次第等,皆如無基而建樓閣。

Without it, the practices of the six perfections and the two stages are like stories built on a house with no foundation.

若相續中,略能生起菩提心相,當如儀受勤學學處,堅穩願心。

When you develop a little experience of this spirit of enlightenment, confirm it with the rite. By making effort in this training, make the aspiration as solid as you can.

次當聽聞菩薩所有諸廣大行,善知進止,
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發生猛利樂修學欲。

Then study the great waves of the bodhisattva deeds, learning the boundaries of what to discard and what to adopt, and make a strong wish to train in those bodhisattva deeds.

發此心已,當如法受行心律儀,學習六度成熟自身,學四攝等成熟有情,尤當勤猛捨命防範諸根本罪,中下纏犯及諸惡作,亦當勤防莫令有染。

After you have developed these attitudes, take the vow of the engaged spirit of enlightenment through its rite. Train in the six perfections that mature your own mind and the four ways of gathering disciples which mature the minds of others. In particular, risk your life in making a great effort to avoid the root infractions. Strive not to be tainted by the small and intermediate contaminants and faults,

若有誤犯,應勤還出。

and even if you are tainted, work to repair it.

次當特學最後二度,故當善巧修靜慮法引發正定。

Then, because you must train specifically in the final two perfections, become knowledgeable in the way to sustain meditative stabilization and then achieve concentration.

又於相續當生清淨遠離斷常二無我見,得彼見已,應住見上善知清淨修法而修,即於如是靜慮般若立止觀名,非離後二波羅蜜多,而為別有。

As much as you can, develop the view of the two selflessnesses, a purity free from permanence and annihilation. After you have found the view and stabilized your mind upon it, understand the proper way to sustain the view in meditation, and then do so. Such stabilization and wisdom are called serenity and insight, but they are not something separate from the last two perfections.

故是正受菩薩律儀,學彼應學從中分出。

Therefore, after you have taken the bodhisattva vows, they come about in the context of the training in its precepts.

此復若能修習下下,漸於上上增欲得心,聽聞上上而於下下漸欲修行,是最切要。

You have reached a critical point when, while meditating on the lower levels, you increasingly wish to attain the higher levels, and when studying the higher levels, your wish to practice the lower levels becomes stronger and stronger.

若於前者全無所有,專修心住專樂見解,難至宗要,故須對於圓滿道體引生定解。

Some say to expend your energy only to stabilize your mind and to understand the view, ignoring all earlier topics, but this makes it very difficult to get the vital points. Therefore, you must develop certainty about the whole course of the path.

修彼等時,亦當聰利令心平等,謂於引導修道知識,敬心微劣,則斷一切善法根本,故當勤修依師之法,如是若心不樂修行,當修暇滿,若著現法當修無常,惡趣過患以為主要。

When you meditate on these topics, train your understanding and then go back to balance your mind. So if it seems that your faith in the teacher who instructs you on the path is decreasing, since this will cut the root of everything good that has come together, work on the methods for relying on the teacher. Similarly, if your joy in your practice loses strength, make meditation on the topics connected with leisure and opportunity your primary focus; if your attachment to this life increases, make meditation on impermanence and the faults of the miserable realms your primary focus.

若覺漫緩所受佛制,當自思惟是於業果定解劣弱,則以修習業果為主。

If you seem to be lazy about the proscriptions you have accepted, consider that your certainty about karmic cause and effect is meager and make meditation on karma and its effects your primary focus.

若於生死缺少厭患,求解脫心則成虛言,故當思惟生死過患。

If your sense of disenchantment with all of cyclic existence decreases, your desire to seek liberation will become just words. Therefore, contemplate the faults of cyclic existence.

若凡所作,皆為利益有情之心不猛利者,是則斷絕大乘根本,故當多修願心及因。

If your intention to benefit living beings in whatever you do is not strong, then you will sever the root of the Mahāyāna. Therefore, frequently cultivate the aspirational spirit of enlightenment together with its causes.

若受佛子所有律儀,學習諸行而覺執相繫縛猛利,當以理智,破執相心一切所緣,而於如空如幻空性,淨修其心。

Once you have taken the vows of a conqueror's child and are training in the practices, if the bondage of the reifying conception of signs seems strong, use reasoning consciousnesses to destroy all objects which are apprehended by the mind which conceives of signs, and train your mind in the space-like and illusion-like emptiness.

若於善緣心不安住為散亂奴,則當正修安住一趣,是諸先覺已宣說者。

If your mind is enslaved to distraction and does not remain on a virtuous object, you should primarily sustain one-pointed stability, as former teachers have said.

以彼為
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例,其未說者亦當了知。總之,莫令偏於一分,令心堪修一切善品。

From these illustrations, you should understand the cases I have not explained. In brief, without being partial, you have to be able to use the whole spectrum of virtues.

◎已釋上士道次第中學菩薩行,應如何學慧性毘鉢舍那之法。

Among the stages of the path of a person of great capacity, I have explained how one who trains in the bodhisattva path practices insight, which is wisdom.

◎第二特學金剛乘法。

II.2 How to train specifically in the Vajrayāna

如是善修顯密共道,其後無疑當入密咒,以彼密道較諸餘法最為希貴,速能圓滿二資糧故。

After you have trained in this way in the paths common to both sutra and mantra, you must undoubtedly enter the mantra path because it is very much more precious than any other practice and it quickly brings the two collections to completion.

若入彼者,如《道炬論》說,先以財敬奉教行等,令師歡喜。

If you are to enter it, then as Atisha's 《Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment》 says, you must first please the guru-even to a greater extent than explained earlier—with deeds such as respect and service and with practice that is in accordance with the guru's words.

較前所說尤為過上,然是對於能具咒說最下之德相者,乃如是行。

And you must do this for a guru who meets at least the minimum qualifications of a teacher explained there.

其次先以清淨續部能熟灌頂,成熟身心。

Then, at the outset, your mind should be matured through the ripening initiation as explained in a source tantra.

次當聽聞了知守護,爾時所受三昧耶律。

You should then listen to the pledges and vows to be taken, understand them, and maintain them.

若為根本罪犯染著,雖可重受,然於相續,生道功德最為稽留,故常勇猛莫令染著。

If you are stricken by root infractions, you may make these commitments again. However, this greatly delays the development of the good qualities of the path in your mind. Make a fierce effort not to be tainted by those root infractions.

又當勵力莫犯粗罪,設有誤犯,亦當勤修還出方便,彼等皆是修道基礎,若無彼者,則如牆傾,諸危屋故。

Strive not to be tainted by the gross infractions, but in the event that you are tainted, use the methods for restoring your vows. Since these are the basis of the practice of the path, without them you will become like a dilapidated house whose foundation has collapsed.

曼殊室利根本教云﹕「佛未說犯戒,能成就諸咒。」

The Root Tantra of Mañjuśri says, "The Master of the Sages does not say that faulty ethical discipline achieves the tantric path."

此說全無上中下品三等成就。

meaning that those with faulty ethical discipline have none of the great, intermediate, or low attainments.

無上瑜伽續說,若不守護諸三昧耶,下劣灌頂不知真實,此三雖修終無成就,故若不護三昧耶律而云修道,是極漂轉咒理之外。

And it says in the highest yoga tantra texts that those who do not maintain their vows, those who have inferior initiation, and those who do not understand reality do not achieve anything despite their practice. Therefore someone who talks about practicing the path without maintaining the pledges and vows has completely strayed from the tantric path.

◎若能如是護三昧耶,及諸律儀而修咒道,當先修習堪為依據續部所說,生起次第圓滿尊輪。

In order to cultivate the mantra path someone who keeps the pledges and vows should at the outset meditate on the stage of generation, the complete divine wheel as explained from a source tantra.

以咒道中不共所斷,謂於蘊處界執為平俗庸常分別,能斷彼者,亦即能轉外器內身及諸受用,為殊勝事生次第故。

The unique object to be eliminated on the tantric path is the conception of ordinariness which regards the aggregates, constituents, and sensory sources as common. It is the stage of generation itself that eliminates this and transforms the abodes, bodies, and resources so that they appear as special.

如是善淨庸常分別,一切時中恆得諸佛菩薩加持,速能
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圓滿無邊福聚,堪為圓滿次第法器。

The conquerors and their children continually bless the person who clears away the conception of ordinariness in this way; such a person easily brings to completion the limitless collections of merit, thereby becoming a suitable vessel for the stage of completion.

其次當修堪為依據續部所說圓滿次第,棄初次第,唯修後攝道一分者,非彼續部及造彼釋聰叡所許,故當攝持無上瑜伽圓滿道體二次宗要。

This person should then meditate on what appears in the source tantras on the stage of completion. Neither the tantras nor the scholars who explain their intended meanings hold that you should discard the first stage and merely classify it within the latter stage, training only in individual portions of the path. Therefore, you must bear in mind the vital points of the two stages of the complete corpus of the path of highest yoga tantra.

此中唯就彼等諸名,略為顯示入咒方隅,於諸咒道次第,應當廣知。

Considering only the terms, I have described a mere fraction of what is involved in entering into the mantra path. Therefore, understand this in detail by using works on the stages of the mantra path.

能如是學,即是修學總攝一切經咒宗要之圓滿道體,令得暇身具足義利,能於自他增廣佛教。

If you train in this way, you will train in the entirely complete corpus of the path, which includes all the vital points of sutra and mantra. As a result, your attainment of leisure in this lifetime will have been worthwhile, and you will be able to extend the Conqueror's precious teaching within both your own and others' minds.

能觀無央佛語目 如實善達一切法 能令智者生歡喜 由親諸修如斯理

To know precisely all scriptural systems with a single eye that sees the Sage's boundless scriptures
Is a way that delights the wise; I rely on a spiritual teacher well-trained in such a way,

知識初佛妙音尊 善歸依故是彼力 故願善擇真實義 彼勝智者恆護持

And as my refuge, I take the Adibuddha Mañjughosa, through whom I discern reality.
May this greatest of all scholars, a master, always protect me.

南洲聰叡頂中嚴 名稱幡幢照諸趣 龍猛無著漸傳來 謂此菩提道次第

The stages of the enlightenment path have been carefully transmitted
Through the generations from Nāgārjuna and Asanga,
The crown-ornaments of the scholars of Jambudvipa,
Banners resplendent among beings.

盡滿眾生希願義 故是教授大寶王 攝納經論千流故 亦名吉祥善說海

Because they fulfill the wishes of humankind,
These instructions are a wish-granting jewel;
Because they gather the rivers of a thousand textual systems,
They are an ocean of glorious eloquence.

此由然燈大智者 光明顯揚雪山中 此方觀視佛道眼 故經多時未瞑閉

It was the great scholar Dipamkara [Atisha]
Who revealed them in the snowy mountain range,
So that in this region, the eye that sees the Conqueror's good path
Did not close for a long time.

次見如實知聖教 宗要聰叡悉滅亡 即此妙道久衰微 為欲增廣聖教故

Then, when there were no more scholars
With accurate knowledge of all the teaching's vital points,
This auspicious path declined for a longtime.
After I saw this situation, in order to spread these teachings,

盡佛所說諸法理 攝為由一善士夫 乘於大乘往佛位 正所當修道次第

I organized everything the Conqueror said
In all his variety of teachings
Into stages of a path for a single fortunate person
Who is riding on the supreme vehicle.

此論文言非太廣 一切要義無不具 雖諸少慧且易解 我以教理正引出

Through a process of proper analysis using scripture and reasoning,
I drew from those teachings a method of practice—
Not too extensive, yet with all the crucial points intact—
That even someone of little intelligence could easily understand.

佛子正行難通達 我乃愚中最為愚 故此所有諸過失 當對如實知前悔

The gateway of the conquerors' children is very difficult to discern.
I am a fool even among fools.
Thus, whatever faults there are here
I confess before those who see things as they are.

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於此策勤有集積 二種資糧廣如空 願成勝王而引導 癡蔽慧目諸眾生

By accumulating through long effort
The two collections as vast as the sky
May I become the chief of the conquerors,
Guide of all beings whose minds are blinded by ignorance.

未至佛位一切生 願為妙音哀攝受 獲得圓滿教次第 正行勝道令佛喜

Also, in all lives until I reach that point
May Mañjughosa look after me with loving-kindness.
After I find the supreme path, complete in the stages of the teaching,
By accomplishing it may I please the conquerors.

如是所解道中要 大悲引動善方便 除遣眾生冥闇意 長時住持佛教法

By skill in means inspired by strong loving-kindness,
May the vital points of the path that I precisely know
Clear away the mental darkness of beings.
May I then uphold the Conqueror's teachings for a long time.

聖教大寶未普及 雖遍遷滅於是方 願由大悲動我意 光顯如是利樂藏

In regions where the supreme, precious teaching has not spread
Or where it has spread but then declined,
May I illumine that treasure of happiness and benefit
With a mind deeply moved by great compassion.

從佛菩薩微妙業 所成菩提道次第 樂解脫意與勝德 令長修持諸佛事

May this treatise on the stages of the path to enlightenment,
Well-founded on the wondrous deeds of the conquerors and their children,
Bring glory to the minds of those who want to be free,
And long preserve the Conqueror's achievements.

願編善道除違緣 辦諸順緣人非人 一切生中不捨離 諸佛所讚真淨道

As for all who provide conditions that support integration of the good path
And clear away conditions that inhibit that integration—
Whether they are human or not, may they never be separated in all their lifetimes
From the pure path praised by the Conquerors.

若時我於最勝乘 如理勤修十法行 爾時大力恆助伴 吉祥德海徧十方

When I strive to properly achieve the supreme vehicle
Through the ten deeds of the teaching,
May I be accompanied always by those who have power,
And may an ocean of good fortune pervade all directions.

◎總攝一切佛語扼要,龍猛無著二師道軌,能往一切種智地位勝士法範,三士所修一切次第圓滿開示,如此菩提道次第者,謂依哦姓具慧般若摩訶薩埵,彼之紹師精善三藏,正行法義,拔濟眾生,長養聖教,寶戒大師,及因前代持律師中,眾所稱歎賈持調伏。(號精進然)彼之紹師智悲教證功德莊嚴,大雪山聚持律之中高勝如幢,第一律師嗉樸堪布寶吉祥賢,並諸餘眾誠希求者,先曾屢勸。後因精善顯密眾典,珍愛三學,荷擔聖教無能倫比,善嫻二語大善知識,摩訶薩埵勝依吉賢殷勤勸請。係從至尊勝士空諱(號虛空幢)
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聞蘭若師,傳內蘇巴及慬哦瓦所傳道次。又從至尊勝士賢號,(名法依賢)聞博朵瓦傳霞惹瓦及博朵瓦傳授鐸巴道次等義。教授根本《道炬論》中,唯除開示三士總相,餘文易解故未全引。以大譯師(具慧般若)及卓壠巴父子所著道次為本,並攝眾多道次要義,圓滿道分易於受持,次第安布無諸紊亂。雪山聚中闢道大轍,於無量教辯才無畏,如理正行經論深義,能發諸佛菩薩歡喜,最為希有摩訶薩埵,至尊勝士叡達瓦等,(號童慧)頂戴彼諸尊長足塵。多聞苾芻修斷行者東宗喀生,善慧名稱吉祥,著於惹珍勝阿蘭若獅子崖下福吉祥賢書。

COLOPHON

This is The Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, a presentation that fully sets forth all the stages practiced by the persons of the three capacities. It is a compendium of all of the vital points in all of the Conqueror's scriptures, the religious system of the supreme person who proceeds to the state of omniscience, and the path blazed by the two great trailblazers, Nāgārjuna and Asañga.

I have sincerely accepted words of exhortation from the following excellent beings:

Kön-chok-tsäl-trim—the great regent of the great conquerors' child Ngok Lo-den-shay-rap skillfully studied the scriptural collections of Buddhist learning and took them to heart by practicing their meaning. In leading many beings, he served as an excellent friend of the precious teaching.

The great abbot of Zul-pu, Kön-chok-bal-sang-bo —regent of Cha-dul-wa-dzin, the excellent one—was unanimously praised by the ascetics of former times. Adorned with wisdom and compassion, and many other precious qualities of knowledge and scripture, he was a great ascetic who rose above the crowd of ascetics in the Snowy Land of Tibet, like the top of a banner.

Kyap-chok-bal-sang-bo was exhorted by many seekers from earlier times and was well trained and tantras of later times. He thereby be in the boundless sūtras came the chief of those who uphold the textual systems, greatly cherishing the three precious trainings in a variety of ways. He was the consummate teacher and great being, a speaker of two languages, and without any rival in bearing the burden of teaching alone.

From the excellent and venerable person named Nam-ka-gyeltsen I received the lineage descended from Kön-ba-wa to Neu-sur-ba and the stages of the path of the lineage descended from Jen-nga-wa.

From the excellent and venerable person whose name ends in Sang-bo, I received the stages of the path lineage descended from Bo-do-wa to Sha-ra-wa, and the lineage descended from Bo-do-wa to Döl-wa.

As for Atisha's Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment, the basic text on these instructions whose meaning I have studied, I have not cited anything apart from merely indicating the general definitions of the three types of persons, thinking that the rest of the words are easy. Instead, taking as my basis the arrangement of the stages of the path by the father and son, the great translator [Ngok] and Drolung, I have compiled the vital points from many [texts] on the stages of the path. It is complete in all aspects of the path, easily put into practice, and arranges the path without confusing the order. The great trailblazer of the Snowy Range, the superior and venerable Ren-da-wa, is a marvelous mahāsattva (bodhisattva) who pleases the conquerors and their children because he properly practices the meaning of the great textual systems with virtuous confidence, unintimidated by the boundless scriptures. I, the one who puts my head in the dust at his feet and at the feet of my other excellent gurus, the easterner Tsong-khapa Lo-sang-drak-pay-bal, the very learned monk and renunciate, composed this treatise at the monastery of the Conqueror's Hermitage of northern Ra-dreng in the mountain range of Lion's Foot Crag. The scribe was Sö-nam-bal-sang-bo. May this make it possible for the precious teaching to spread in every way in all directions.

菩提道次第廣論卷二十四終

◎民國二十三年古曆冬月十五日,譯於重慶縉雲山世界佛學苑漢藏教理院,又本文前六卷係在藏地隨學隨譯,次後五卷是在仰光及船上譯,其後十三卷在本院譯,二十四年六月並校改一次。
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◎2005/03/26 校對

◎版本:福智之聲出版社